Performance of sand-emulsion mixes under the effect of field and laboratory environmental conditions

  • Ahmed El-Desouky
Technical Note
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection from GeoMEast 2017 – Sustainable Civil Infrastructures: Innovative Infrastructure Geotechnology


Because of its high availability, sand is one of the most important construction materials in Egypt. The main objective of this paper is to study the performance of sand-emulsion mixes under the effect of field and laboratory environmental conditions. Laboratory simulation of environmental conditions could be achieved by subjecting sand-emulsion specimens to wet-dry cycles through immersing in water or hot-dry cycles at three high temperatures using laboratory ovens. Weight of each specimen is recorded after each cycle, and after five wet-dry/hot-dry cycles, Marshall stability and flow were determined. The effect of field environmental conditions were studied by leaving two large slabs of sand-emulsion mixes in the field for 18 months. The slabs were prepared and compacted in the field. To investigate the ability of sand-emulsion mixes to act as surface layers in low traffic volume roads, slabs were subjected to light traffic loads. Periodic surface friction evaluation was conducted using the British Pendulum Tester. After 18 months, five cores were extracted from each slab and tested for their Marshall stability and flow. The results of laboratory and field investigations supported that sand-emulsion mixes could perform well as base layers of roads under environmental conditions. In addition and based on Marshall design criteria and friction values, sand-emulsion mixes may be used as surface layers in minor/temporary roads of low to medium traffic volumes. Coarse sands could be used successfully in case of water existence and/or in high temperature regions.


Sand-emulsion Performance Friction Field Laboratory Environmental conditions 


  1. 1.
    Egyptian Code of Practice (ECP) for Urban and Rural Roods (2008) Part4: roods aggregates and testing, 1st edn. Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jostein M (1983) The use of cold bitumen stabilized base course mixes in Norway. Norwegian Public Roads Administration, AkreshusGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adedimila A, Oti D (1987) Development of acceptable bituminous road base materials from laterite. In: Technical note, ICE proceedings, vol 83, issue 2, pp 453–463Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khedr S, El-Desouky A, Alsanoussi A (2010) Evaluation of sand-bitumen as a base layer for desert roads. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on civil and architecture engineering, Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt, May 25–27Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson JR, Thompson MR (1995) Characterization of emulsion aggregate mixtures. Transportation Research Board 1942, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, pp 108–117Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Slurry Surface Association (ISSA) (2010). Recommended performance guideline for emulsified asphalt slurry seal. No. 3 Church Circle, PMB 250, Annapolis, MD, 21401Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Desouky A, Mostafa A (2014) Investigating the effect of using waste marble and polymerized emulsion in asphalt mixes. J Eng Appl Sci 61(3):235–247Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    El-Desouky A, Nagy N, Al-Jouf H (2012) Optimum use of asphalt emulsions in sand-bitumen mixes. In: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on civil & architecture engineering, MTC, Cairo, Egypt, May 29–31Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ASTM, Designation: C 136-95a (1996) Standard test method for sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, section 4, Construction, vol 04.02, Concrete and aggregates, pp 78–82Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asphalt Institute (1989) A basic asphalt emulsion manual. Manual series No. 19, 3rd edn. Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association (AEMA), St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ASTM Designation: D 4867-92 (1996) Standard test method for the effect of moisture on asphalt concrete paving mixtures. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol 04.03Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wessex Engineering Ltd (2004). Wessex skid tester S885 operating instructions. Version 4.1, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asphalt Institute (1979). Mix design methods for asphalt concrete and other hot-mix types. Manual series no. 2 (MS-2), Lexington, KYGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ASTM, Designation: E 303-93 (1996) Standard test method for measuring surface frictional properties using the British pendulum tester, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section 4, vol (04.03), Road and paving materials; Vehicle-pavement system, pp 657–661Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Military Technical CollegeCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations