Topics in Current Chemistry

, 375:89 | Cite as

Integration of Waste Valorization for Sustainable Production of Chemicals and Materials via Algal Cultivation

  • Yong Chen
  • Li-ping Sun
  • Zhi-hui Liu
  • Greg Martin
  • Zheng Sun
Review
  • 157 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Chemistry and Chemical Technologies in Waste Valorization

Abstract

Managing waste is an increasing problem globally. Microalgae have the potential to help remove contaminants from a range of waste streams and convert them into useful biomass. This article presents a critical review of recent technological developments in the production of chemicals and other materials from microalgae grown using different types of waste. A range of novel approaches are examined for efficiently capturing CO2 in flue gas via photosynthetic microalgal cultivation. Strategies for using microalgae to assimilate nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, and metal ions from wastewater are considered in relation to modes of production. Generally, more economical open cultivation systems such as raceway ponds are better suited for waste conversion than more expensive closed photobioreactor systems, which might have use for higher-value products. The effect of cultivation methods and the properties of the waste streams on the composition the microalgal biomass is discussed relative to its utilization. Possibilities include the production of biodiesel via lipid extraction, biocrude from hydrothermal liquefaction, and bioethanol or biogas from microbial conversion. Microalgal biomass produced from wastes may also find use in higher-value applications including protein feeds or for the production of bioactive compounds such as astaxanthin or omega-3 fatty acids. However, for some waste streams, further consideration of how to manage potential microbial and chemical contaminants is needed for food or health applications. The use of microalgae for waste valorization holds promise. Widespread implementation of the available technologies will likely follow from further improvements to reduce costs, as well as the increasing pressure to effectively manage waste.

Keywords

Biomass utilization Metabolic pathways Culture systems Bioenergy By-products 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31501493) and “Young Eastern Scholar program” at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning (QD2015047).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

Not applicable.

Consent for Publication

Yong Chen, Li-ping Sun, Zhi-hui Liu, Greg Martin, and Zheng Sun approved the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

Yong Chen, Li-ping Sun, Zhi-hui Liu, Greg Martin, and Zheng Sun declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Research Center for Marine Biosciences, Ministry of Science and TechnologyShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of EducationShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science EducationShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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