Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry

  • Tone Aspevik
  • Åge Oterhals
  • Sissel Beate Rønning
  • Themistoklis Altintzoglou
  • Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet
  • Asbjørn Gildberg
  • Nils Kristian Afseth
  • Ragnhild Dragøy Whitaker
  • Diana LindbergEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Chemistry and Chemical Technologies in Waste Valorization


Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.


Food and feed applications Enzymatic hydrolysis Downstream processing Bioactivity Analytical chemistry Consumers 



Animal by-products


Bioactive peptides


Bovine spongiform encephalopathy


European Union


Fourier-transform infrared


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy



Grants 262308 and 262300 from the Norwegian Research Council are acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This work is partly funded by Grants 262308 and 262300 from the Norwegian Research Council.

Conflict of interest

Authors Aspevik, T., Oterhals, Å., Rønning, S. B., Altintzoglou, T., Wubshet, S. G, Gildberg, A., Afseth N. K., Whitaker, R. D., and Lindberg, D. declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tone Aspevik
    • 1
  • Åge Oterhals
    • 1
  • Sissel Beate Rønning
    • 2
  • Themistoklis Altintzoglou
    • 3
  • Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet
    • 2
  • Asbjørn Gildberg
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nils Kristian Afseth
    • 2
  • Ragnhild Dragøy Whitaker
    • 3
  • Diana Lindberg
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Nofima ASBergenNorway
  2. 2.Nofima ASÅsNorway
  3. 3.Nofima ASTromsøNorway
  4. 4.TromsøNorway

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