Advertisement

Polytechnica

, Volume 2, Issue 1–2, pp 26–29 | Cite as

Green Technology: Transformation of Transpiration Vapor to Mitigate Global Water Crisis

  • Md. Faruque HossainEmail author
Original Article
  • 174 Downloads

Abstract

The transpiration mechanism has been proposed for rerouting as it is the main cause of groundwater loss which is also causing significant climate change by releasing water vapor into the air. Since electrostatic force has the tendency to tug down the water, thus, a static electricity force creating plastic tank has been proposed to install at the bottom of plants to capture the transpiration water vapor and treated it in site by applying UV technology to meet the daily water demand throughout the world.

Keywords

Transpiration Water vapor Static electricity force Capturing water vapor UV technology Potable water And climate change mitigation 

1 Introduction

Plants give O2 and take CO2 by the process of photosynthesis to keep the global environment in balance. Plants are simply the hero for the environment; unfortunately, hero plants are also the villain for the environment who plays the significant role in causing global warming. Fact that the body of plants needs water for the reaction of biochemical metabolism for its growth (Jaivime and Scott 2015). This water is taken up by the cohesion-tension mechanism of the soil (ground water) through the roots, transported by osmosis through the xylem to the leaves of the plants (Josette and Scott 2005; Tobias and Abraham 2008). Interestingly only a mere 0.5% to 3% of water is used by plants for their metabolism and the rest of water releases into the air through stomatal cells by transpiration process (Reed and Maxwell 2015; Scott and Zachary 2013). This process of transpiration is not only causing the largest loss of groundwater that is also causing global warming, since this water vapor is a notable cause for global warming.

Recent studies on transpiration and ground water relationship has been discussed respectively terrestrial water fluxes where their water models revealed that streamflow getting lower due to the plants transpiration (Scott and Zachary 2013; Josette and Scott 2005). These are very interesting finding, but no mechanism has been studied yet to trap this transpiration water for meeting global water demand. In this research, therefore, a technology has been proposed to eliminate this water loss by diverting this transpiration mechanism by collecting this water vapor instead of allowing it to enter the air and transform it into water potable and clean energy. Simply static electricity creator plastic tank near the plants has been proposed to install to trap all the water vapor as the water vapor are attracted by the force of static electricity. Just because water vapor has positive and negative charges and the electrons that ended up on static electrical force has a positive charge, while water molecules have a negative charge on one side, the positive charge of static electric force and negative charges of water vapor pull each other closer together, the positive side tug the direction and force the water come down to collect the water in a tank and be treated in site to meet the daily water demand.

Calculation revealed only of four standard oak trees can meet the total water for a small family throughout the year. Since the ground water strata are getting to lower fast to finite level, and global water and global warming getting dangerous seriously to putting earth on vulnerable condition, thus these two vital needs must be resolved immediately. Interestingly this new finding has the total solution to solve the global water, and environmental crisis for the survival of this planet which will indeed open to new door in science.

2 Material, Methods, and Simulation

2.1 Static Electric Force Generation

To capture the water vapor from air which is released by stomatal cells of the plants’ during the day time, a model been proposed to create Hossain Static Electric Force (HSEF = ɧ) by implementing the friction of insulator into the plastic tank to pulling down the water vapor into the plastic tank (Andreas 2012). To create HSEF into the plastic tank, abelian local symmetries calculation has been implemented by using MATLAB software considering gauge field symmetry and the Goldstone scalar with respect longitudinal mode of the vector (Douglas et al. 2015; Leijing et al. 2011). Thus, for each spontaneously broken particle Τα of the local symmetry will be corresponding gauge field of \( {A}_{\mu}^{\alpha }\ (x) \) where HSEF will started to work at a local U (1) phase symmetry (Langer et al. 2014; Pregnolato et al. 2015). Therefore, the model will be comprised as a complex scalar field Φ (x) of static electric charge q coupled to the EM field Aμ(x) which is expressed by ɧ:
Where
$$ {\displaystyle \begin{array}{l}{D}_{\mu}\Phi (x)={\partial}_{\mu}\Phi \left(\mathrm{x}\right)+{\mathrm{iqA}}_{\upmu}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)\Phi\ \left(\mathrm{x}\right)\\ {}{D}_{\mu }{\Phi}^{\ast }(x)={\partial}_{\mu }{\Phi}^{\ast}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)-{\mathrm{iqA}}_{\upmu}\left(\mathrm{x}\right){\Phi}^{\ast}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)\end{array}} $$
(2)
And
$$ V\left({\Phi}^{\ast}\Phi \right)=\frac{\lambda }{2}\ {\left({\Phi}^{\ast}\Phi \right)}^2+{m}^2\left({\Phi}^{\ast}\Phi \right) $$
(3)
Suppose λ > 0 but m2< 0, so that Φ = 0 is a local maximum of the scalar potential, while the minima form a degenerate circle \( \Phi =\frac{v}{\sqrt{2}}\ast {e}^{i\theta}, \)
$$ v=\sqrt{\frac{-2{m}^2}{\lambda }}, any\ real\ \theta $$
(4)
Consequently, the scalar field Φ develops a non-zero vacuum expectation value Φ ≠ 0, which spontaneously create the U (1) symmetry of the static electric field. The breakdown would lead to a massless Goldstone scalar stemming from the phase of the complex field Φ (x). But for the local U (1) symmetry, the phase of Φ (x) - not just the phase of the expectation value Φ but the x-dependent phase of the dynamical Φ (x) field. To analyze this static electricity force mechanism, polar coordinates have been used in the scalar field space, thus
$$ \Phi\ \left(\mathrm{x}\right)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\ {\Phi}_{\mathrm{r}}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)\ast {\mathrm{e}}^{\mathrm{i}\Theta \left(\mathrm{x}\right)},\mathrm{real}\ {\Phi}_{\mathrm{r}}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)>0,\mathrm{real}\ \Phi \left(\mathrm{x}\right) $$
(5)
This field redefinition is singular when Φ (x) = 0, so I never used it for theories with Φ ≠ 0, but it’s alright for spontaneously broken theories where it can be expected Φx ≠ 0 almost everywhere. In terms of the real fields ϕr(x) and Θ(x), the scalar potential depends only on the radial field ϕr,
$$ V\left(\phi \right)=\frac{\lambda }{8}\ {\left({\phi}_r^2-{v}^2\right)}^2+ const, $$
(6)

or in terms of the radial field shifted by its VEV, Φr(x) = v + σ(x),

$$ {\phi}_r^2-{v}^2={\left(v+\sigma \right)}^2-{v}^2=2 v\sigma +{\sigma}^2 $$
(7)
$$ V=\frac{\lambda }{8}\ {\left(2 v\sigma -{\sigma}^2\right)}^2=\frac{\lambda {v}^2}{2}\ast {\sigma}^2+\frac{\lambda v}{2}\ast {\sigma}^3+\frac{\lambda }{8}\ast {\sigma}^4 $$
(8)

At the same time, the covariant derivative Dμϕ becomes

$$ {D}_{\mu}\phi =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\ \left({\partial}_{\mu}\left({\phi}_r{e}^{i\Theta}\right)+ iq{A}_{\mu}\ast {\phi}_r{e}^{i\Theta}\ \right)=\frac{e^{i\Theta}}{\sqrt{2}}\ \left({\partial}_{\mu }{\phi}_r+{\phi}_r\ast i{\partial}_{\mu}\Theta +{\phi}_r\ast iq{A}_{\mu}\right) $$
(9)
$$ {\left|{D}_{\mu}\phi \right|}^2=\frac{1}{2}\ {\left|{\partial}_{\mu }{\phi}_r+{\phi}_r\ast i{\partial}_{\mu}\Theta +{\phi}_r\ast iq{A}_{\mu}\right|}^2=\frac{1}{2}\ \left({\partial}_{\mu }{\phi}_r\right)+\frac{\phi_r^2}{2}\ast {\left({\partial}_{\mu}\Theta q{A}_{\mu}\right)}^2=\frac{1}{2}\ {\left({\partial}_{\mu }\ \sigma \right)}^2+\frac{{\left(v+\sigma \right)}^2}{2}\ast {\left({\partial}_{\mu}\Theta +q{A}_{\mu}\right)}^2 $$
(10)
Altogether,

To confirm the creating of this static electric force (ɧsef) into the static electric field properties of this HSEF, it has been expanded in powers of the fields (and their derivatives) and focus on the quadratic part describing the free particles,

Here this HSEFfree) function obviously will suggest a real scalar particle of positive mass2 = λv2 involving the Aμ (x) and the Θ (x) fields to initiate to create tremendous static electricity force within the electric field of the plastic tank (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1

a The creating of static electricity force, and b its mechanism of conversion of static energy into an electromotive force of positive and negative charges that mobilizes the ‘static’ electricity to tug down the water molecules

2.2 In Site Water Treatment

Since the collected water into the plastic tank is just nothing but the liquid form of vapor thus it will not require any sedimentation, coagulation, and chlorination to clean the water. Only mixing physics (UV application) and filtration will to be required to treat the water to meet the US National Primary Drinking Water Standard code (Hossain 2016a, b). It is the simplest way to treat water by using SODIS system (SOlar DISinfection), where a transparent container is filled with water and exposed to full sunlight for several hours. As soon as the water temperature reaches 50 °C with a UV radiation of 320 nm, the inactivation process will be accelerated in order to lead to complete microbiological disinfection immediately and the treated water shall be used to meet the total domestic water demand (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2

The photo physics radiation application for the purification of water which shows that once UV radiation of 320 nm applied into the water, it stars to disinfect all microorganism immediately once temperature reaches at 50 °C

3 Results and Discussion

3.1 Electrostatic Force Analysis

To mathematically determine the electric static force proliferation around the plastic tank to confirm to tug down the water, it can be initially solved the dynamic photon proliferation by integrating HSEF electric field create thus, the local U (1) gauge invariant did allow to add a mass-term for the gauge particle under → eiα(x) to. In detailed it can be explained by a covariant derivative with a special transformation rule for the scalar field expressing by (Yuwen et al. 2016; Li and Xu 2013):
$$ {\displaystyle \begin{array}{cc}{\partial}_{\mu}\to {D}_{\mu }={\partial}_{\mu }= ie{A}_{\mu }& \left[\mathrm{covariant}\ \mathrm{derivatives}\right]\\ {}{A}_{\mu}^{\hbox{'}}={A}_{\mu }+\frac{1}{e}\ {\partial}_{\mu}\alpha & \left[{A}_{\mu }\ \mathrm{derivatives}\right]\end{array}} $$
(13)

Where the local U (1) gauge invariant HSEF for a complex scalar field is given by:

The term \( \frac{1}{4}\ {F}_{\mu v}{F}^{\mu v} \) is the kinetic term for the gauge field (heating photon) and V(∅) is the extra term in the HSEF that be: V(∅∅) = μ2(∅∅) + λ (∅∅)2.

Therefore, the HSEF (ɧ) under perturbations into the quantum field have initiated with the massive scalar particles ϕ1and ϕ2 along with a mass μ. In this situation μ2< 0 had an infinite number of quantum, each has been satisfied by \( {\phi}_1^2+{\phi}_2^2=-{\mu}^2/\lambda ={v}^2 \) and the ɧ through the covariant derivatives using again the shifted fields η and ξ defined the quantum field as \( {\phi}_0=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\ \left[\left(\upsilon +\eta \right)+ i\xi \right] \).

Thus, this expanding term in the ɧ associated to the scalar field is suggesting that HSEF electric field is prepared to initiate the proliferation of static electricity force into its quantum field to tug down the water (Yan and Heng 2014; Hossain 2016a, b).

To confirm this tug downing water by static electricity force, hereby, with readily it has been implemented the calculation of \( \overline{\phi} \)[s0] for the confirmation of the expected value of s0 for capturing water vapor (Soto et al. 2006; Zhu et al. 2014). Thus, the corrective functional asymptotic formulas are being used as follows:

$$ \overline{\phi}\left[{s}_0\right]=2{s}_0\left(\ln 4{\mathrm{s}}_0\hbox{--} 2\right)+\ln 4{\mathrm{s}}_0\left(\ln 4{\mathrm{s}}_0\hbox{--} 2\right)\hbox{--} \frac{\left({\pi}^2-9\right)}{3}+{s}_0^{-1}\ \left(\mathrm{ln}4{s}_0+\frac{9}{8}\right)+...\ \left({s}_0>>1\right); $$
(16)
$$ \overline{\phi}\left[{s}_0\right]=\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)\ {\left({S}_0-1\right)}^{\frac{3}{2}}+\left(\frac{5}{3}\right)\ {\left({S}_0-1\right)}^{\frac{5}{2}}\hbox{--} \left(\frac{1507}{420}\right)\ {\left({S}_0-1\right)}^{\frac{7}{2}}+...\ \left({s}_0\hbox{--} 1<<1\right). $$
(17)

The function \( \frac{\overline{\phi}\left[{s}_0\right]}{\left({s}_0-1\right)} \) is thus described as 1 < s0 < 10; for larger s0, and it contains natural logarithmic which is s0 to confirm the tug down of 100% water vapor by the HSEF into the plastic tank.

In average 100 gal water required per day per person in a standard daily life. [17, 18]. Thus, it will require total (100gal/Day/Person X 4persons X 365days) 146,000 gal water per year a small family of four person. Since a standard oak tree can transpire 40,000 gal (151,000 l) per year, thus, tug down of 100% water vapor by HSEF described above will require only four standard oak trees to satisfy the total water demand for a small family.

4 Conclusions

Water crises is one of the major vulnerable one on earth since billions of people on earth are having difficulties everyday around the world to get the clean water for their daily usages. To mitigate these problems, transpiration mechanism has been proposed to transform and convert it into clean water to meet the global water demand and reduce the global warming by the utilization of electrostatic force to capture this transpiration water vapor and treat in site by UV application would indeed be a novel, integrated, and innovative field in science to console the global water crisis.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Green Globe Technology under grant RD-02017-07 for building a better environment. Any findings, predictions, and conclusions described in this article are solely performed by the authors and it is confirmed that there is no conflict of interest for publishing in a suitable journal.

References

  1. Andreas R (2012) Strongly correlated photons on a chip. Nat Photonics 6:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Douglas S, Habibian H et al (2015) Quantum many-body models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals. Nat Photonics 9:326–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hossain M (2016a) Solar energy integration into advanced building design for meeting energy demand and environment problem. Int J Energy Res 40:1293–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hossain F (2016b) Theory of global cooling. Ener Sus Soc 7:6–24Google Scholar
  5. Jaivime E, Scott JMD (2015) Global separation of plant transpiration from groundwater and streamflow. Nature 525:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Josette M, Scott R (2005) The ERECTA gene regulates plant transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis. Nat. 436:866–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Langer L, Poltavtsev S, Bayer M (2014) Access to long-term optical memories using photon echoes retrieved from semiconductor spins. Nat Photonics 8:851–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Leijing Y, Sheng W, Qingsheng Z, Zhiyong Z, Tian P, Yan L (2011) Efficient photovoltage multiplication in carbon nanotubes. Nat Photonics 8:672–676Google Scholar
  9. Li Q, Xu D (2013) Recoil effects of a motional scatterer on single-photon scattering in one dimension. Sci Rep 8:3144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pregnolato T, Lee E, Song J, Stobbe D, Lodahl P (2015) Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide. Nat Commun 6(8655)Google Scholar
  11. Reed M, Maxwell L (2015) Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning. Science 353:377–380Google Scholar
  12. Scott J, Zachary D (2013) Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration. Nature 496:347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Soto W, Klein S et al (2006) Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance. Sol Energy 80:78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tobias DW, Abraham SD (2008) The transpiration of water at negative pressures in a synthetic tree. Nature 455:208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yan W, Heng F (2014) Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports. Sci Rep 4(4820)Google Scholar
  16. Yuwen W, Yongyou Z, Qingyun Z, Bingsuo Z, Udo S (2016) Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two- point coupled with a Jaynes-cummings system. Sci Rep 6(33867)Google Scholar
  17. Zhu Y, Xiaoyong H, Hong Y, Qihuang G (2014) On-chip plasmon-induced transparency based on plasmonic coupled nanocavities. Sci Rep 4(3752)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Escola Politécnica - Universidade de São Paulo 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Architecture and Construction Management Kennesaw State UniversityKennesawUSA

Personalised recommendations