Flexural Capacity of Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns Under Seismic Loading: Database and a Simplified Model

Research paper


This paper proposes a simplified envelop curve model for evaluation of capacity curve of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) columns subjected to seismic loads. A seismic research database containing 53 reinforced RAC columns was established and applied to calibrate the envelop curve model. The effective initial stiffness, feature drift ratio, and various loads of collected RAC columns were discussed and modelled by a database analysis and a simplified sectional analysis. According to comparative results, effective initial stiffness, yield stiffness, and various drift ratios of RAC columns could be modelled simply considering the effects of axial load ratio and replacement ratio of recycled aggregate in RACs. Considering the weak self-properties of recycled aggregates, the study suggested the yield load of reinforced RAC columns under seismic loads could be taken simply as 80% of calculated peak load of the columns. The ultimate drift ratios of RAC columns were evaluated by a simplified linear function of peak drift ratios. The paper found that the lateral confinement index of columns has a significant influence on the flexural envelop curves of reinforced RAC columns. The comparative results verified that the proposed envelop curve model can evaluate the experimental behaviour with a good agreement.


Seismic assessment Flexural capacity curve Stiffness Recycled aggregate Ductility 


  1. 1.
    Xiao J, Xie H, Zhang C (2012) Investigation on building waste and reclaim in Wenchuan earthquake disaster area. Resour Conserv Recycl 61:109–117Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xiao J (2018) Recycled aggregate concrete. Recycled aggregate concrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 65–98Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Police Agency of Japan (2011) Damage situation and police countermeasures associated with 2011 Tohoku district off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake. Accessed 11 June 2011
  4. 4.
    BBC News (2011) Japan quake: Infrastructure damage will delay recovery. Accessed 17 Mar 2011
  5. 5.
    BBC News (2011) Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east. Accessed 11 Mar 2011
  6. 6.
    Xiao J, Li W, Fan Y, Huang X (2012) An overview of study on recycled aggregate concrete in China (1996–2011). Constr Build Mater 31:364–383Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cabral AEB, Schalch V, Dal Molin DCC, Ribeiro JLD (2010) Mechanical properties modeling of recycled aggregate concrete. Constr Build Mater 24(4):421–430Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Etxeberria M, Vázquez E, Marí A, Barra M (2007) Influence of amount of recycled coarse aggregates and production process on properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Cem Concr Res 37(5):735–742Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rahal K (2007) Mechanical properties of concrete with recycled coarse aggregate. Build Environ 42(1):407–415Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Limbachiya MC, Leelawat T, Dhir RK (2000) Use of recycled concrete aggregate in high-strength concrete. Mater Struct 33(9):574–580Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nixon PJ (1978) Recycled concrete as an aggregate for concrete—a review. Matériaux et Constr 11(5):371–378Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xiao J, Li J, Zhang C (2005) Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete under uniaxial loading. Cem Concr Res 35(6):1187–1194Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang J, Zhou A, Liu BK et al (2012) Experimental study of seismic behavior of recycled concrete frame columns with different axial compression ratios. J Hefei Univ Technol (Nat Sci) 35(4):503–507 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu Q, Lu J (2012) Experimental research on hysteretic behavior of recycled concrete columns. J Harbin Inst Technol 44(2):23–27 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yin HP, Cao WL, Zhang YJ et al (2010) An experimental study on the seismic behavior of recycled concrete columns with different recycled aggregate substitution ratios. World Earthq Eng 26(1):57–63 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiao J, Huang X, Shen L (2012) Seismic behavior of semi-precast column with recycled aggregate concrete. Constr Build Mater 35:988–1001Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yin HP, Cao WL, Zhang YJ et al (2010) An experimental study on the seismic behavior of recycled concrete columns with different reinforcement ratio. Technol Earthq Disaster Prev 5(1):99–106 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang YQ, Cao WL, Zhang JW et al (2010) An experimental study on the seismic behavior of recycled concrete short columns with crossed reinforcing bars. Technol Earthq Disaster Prev 5(1):89–97 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang SL, Yang T, Li T (2013) An experimental research on regenerated brick granules effect on seismic behavior of recycled concrete. Ind Constr 43(11):26–30 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meng E, Yang S, Chen M, Su Y, Zeng W (2015) Experimental study on seismic behavior of recycled concrete filled square steel tubular column and steel beam joints with reinforcing ring. ICCET 2015, Atlantis Press, 908-913.
  21. 21.
    Bai GL, Liu C, Zhao HJ et al (2011) Experimental study of seismic behavior of recycled concrete frame columns. Earthq Eng Eng Vib 31(1):61–66 [In Chinese] Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kassem MM, Nazri FM, Farsangi EN (2019) On the quantification of collapse margin of a retrofitted university building in Beirut using a probabilistic approach. Eng Sci Technol Int J. Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Elwood KJ, Eberhard MO (2009) Effective stiffness of reinforced concrete columns. ACI Struct J 106(4):476–484Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vu NS, Li B, Beyer K (2014) Effective stiffness of reinforced concrete coupling beams. Eng Struct 76:371–382Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cai G, Sun Y, Takeuchi T, Zhang J (2015) Proposal of a complete seismic shear strength model for circular concrete columns. Eng Struct 100:399–409Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    FEMA 356 (2000) Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. Federal Emergency Management Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    ASCE-41-17 (2017) ASCE Standard, ASCE/SEI, 41–17: seismic evaluation and retrofit of existing buildings. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, USA.
  28. 28.
    American Concrete Institute (ACI) (2011) Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-11) and commentary. ACI 318R-11, Farmington Hills, MI, 503 pGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Paulay T, Priestley MJN (1992) Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khuntia M, Ghosh SK (2004) Flexural stiffness of reinforced concrete columns and beams: analytical approach. ACI Struct J 101(3):351–363Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tran CTN, Li B (2012) Initial stiffness of reinforced concrete columns with moderate aspect ratios. Adv Struct Eng 15(2):265–276Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Priestley MJN (2000) Performance based seismic design. Bull NZ Soc Earthq Eng 33(3):325–346Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bertero VV, Anderson JC, Krawinkler H, Miranda E (1991) Design guidelines for ductility and drift limits. Report No. UCB/EERC- 91/15, University of California, Berkeley, USAGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sheikh SA (1982) A comparative study of confinement models. ACI J 79(4):296–306Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bahn BY, Hsu CTT (1998) Stress-strain behavior of concrete under cyclic loading. ACI Mater J 95:178–193Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ghee AB, Priestley MN, Paulay T (1989) Seismic shear strength of circular reinforced concrete columns. ACI Struct J 86(1):45–59Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    GB/T 50152-2012 (2012) Standard test method of concrete structures. Beijing (China). Architecture and Building Press, Bejing [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xiao JZ, Li JB, Zhang C (2006) On relationships between the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete: an overview. Mater Struct 39(6):655–664MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), Laboratoire de Tribologie et de Dynamique des Systèmes (LTDS), UMR 5513Saint-Etienne Cedex 2France

Personalised recommendations