International Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 12, pp 1931–1940 | Cite as

An Investigation into the Compressibility and Lateral Stresses of Sand–Carpet Mixtures Using a Large Oedometer Apparatus

  • Mehran Karimpour-FardEmail author
  • Habib Shahnazari
  • Ghazal Rezaie Soufi
  • Amirreza Saremi
Research paper


In this paper, the deformation properties of sand, reinforced with carpet waste, are investigated by carrying out a set of large-scale oedometer tests under different overburden pressures. The oedometer apparatus employed in this study has been equipped with vertical and lateral pressure cells, which allow the value of the soil’s coefficient of lateral pressure at rest, to be determined as well as its compressibility. Carpet waste was added to sand at weight percentages of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. Results were indicative of a reduction in the coefficient of lateral pressure at rest, K0 with the increase in carpet content of the mixtures. The reduction in the value of K0 amounted to 10% at a carpet content of 15%. The compressibility properties of the mixtures were evaluated as well, by recording one-dimensional displacement in the samples. Results demonstrated an increase in the coefficient of volume change with the increase in carpet content, particularly for lower levels of overburden pressure. Predictive models were developed based on the multi-linear regression (MLR) procedure to predict the coefficient of lateral pressure at rest and coefficient of volume change for the sand–carpet mixtures normalized to the values of sand.


Carpet waste Compressibility Oedometer Soil reinforcement 


  1. 1.
    Riahi P, Jamshidi Chenari R, Karimpour-Fard M (2015) Mechanical properties of sand-TDA mixtures in large scale direct shear test. Proceeding of the geotechnical engineering infrastructure development. ICE Publishing, London, pp 3323–3328Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bahadori H, Farzalizadeh R (2018) Dynamic properties of saturated sands mixed with tyre powders and tyre shreds. Int J Civil Eng 16(4):395–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neaz Sheikh M, Mashiri MS, Vinod JS, Tsang HH (2012) Shear and compressibility behavior of sand–tire crumb mixtures. J Mater Civil Eng 25(10):1366–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shariatmadari N, Karimpour-Fard M, Shargh A (2018) An experimental investigation of liquefaction resistance of sand–ground rubber mixtures. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civil Eng 42:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shariatmadari N, Karimpour-Fard M, Shargh A (2019) Evaluation of liquefaction potential in sand–tire crumb mixtures using the energy approach. Int J Civil Eng 17(2):181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang Y, Zureick AH, Cho BS, Scott D (1994) Properties of fibre reinforced concrete using recycled fibres from carpet industrial waste. J Mater Sci 29(16):4191–4199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmidt H, Cieślak M (2008) Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation. Waste Manage 28(7):1182–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Awal AA, Mohammadhosseini H (2016) Green concrete production incorporating waste carpet fiber and palm oil fuel ash. J Clean Prod 137:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mohammadhosseini H, Tahir MM, Sam ARM, Lim NHAS, Samadi M (2018) Enhanced performance for aggressive environments of green concrete composites reinforced with waste carpet fibers and palm oil fuel ash. J Clean Prod 185:252–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McGown A, Andrawes KZ, Al-Hasani MM (1978) Effect of inclusion properties on the behaviour of sand. Géotechnique 28(3):327–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yetimoglu T, Salbas O (2003) A study on shear strength of sands reinforced with randomly distributed discrete fibers. Geotext Geomembranes 21(2):103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gray DH, Ohashi H (1983) Mechanics of fiber reinforcement in sand. J Geotech Eng 109(3):335–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gray DH, Al-Refeai T (1986) Behavior of fabric-versus fiber-reinforced sand. J Geotech Eng 112(8):804–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gray DH, Maher MH (1989) Admixture stabilization of sand with discrete randomly distributed fibers. In: Proceeding of the 12th international conference soil mechanics and foundation engineering, vol 2. Rio de Janeiro, pp 1363–1366Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maher MH, Gray DH (1990) Static response of sands reinforced with randomly distributed fibers. J Geotech Eng 116(11):1661–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maher MH, Ho YC (1994) Mechanical properties of kaolinite/fiber soil composite. J Geotech Eng 120(8):1381–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ranjan G, Vasan RM, Charan HD (1996) Probabilistic analysis of randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil. J Geotech Eng 122(6):419–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kumar A, Walia BS, Mohan J (2006) Compressive strength of fiber reinforced highly compressible clay. Constr Build Mater 20(10):1063–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Santoni RL, Tingle JS, Webster SL (2001) Engineering properties of sand-fiber mixtures for road construction. J Geotech Geoenviron 127(3):258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Noorzad R, Amini PF (2014) Liquefaction resistance of Babolsar sand reinforced with randomly distributed fibers under cyclic loading. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 66:281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Botero E, Ossa A, Sherwell G, Ovando-Shelley E (2015) Stress–strain behavior of a silty soil reinforced with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Geotext Geomembranes 43(4):363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park T, Tan SA (2005) Enhanced performance of reinforced soil walls by the inclusion of short fiber. Geotext Geomembranes 23(4):348–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang Y (1999) Utilization of recycled carpet waste fibers for reinforcement of concrete and soil. Polym Plast Technol Eng 38(3):533–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murray J, Frost J, Wang Y (2000) Behavior of a sandy silt reinforced with discontinuous recycled fiber inclusions. Transp Res Rec 1714:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghiassian H, Poorebrahim G, Gray DH (2004) Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes. Waste Manage Res 22(2):108–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miraftab M, Lickfold A (2008) Utilization of carpet waste in reinforcement of substandard soils. J Ind Text 38(2):167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ghiassian H, Ghazi F (2009) Liquefaction analysis of fine sand reinforced with carpet waste fibers under triaxial tests. In: Proceeding of the 2nd international conference on new developments in soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. Nicosia, North Cyprus, pp 28–30Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jamshidi Chenari R, Towhata I, Ghiassian H, Tabarsa A (2010) Experimental evaluation of dynamic deformation characteristics of sheet pile retaining walls with fiber reinforced backfill. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 30(6):438–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anyiko F, Kalumba D, Bagampadde U (2011) Investigation of the suitability of recycled carpet fibre as a soil reinforcement material. In: Proceeding of the 2nd international conference on advances in engineering and technology, vol 31, pp 388–394Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mirzababaei M, Miraftab M, Mohamed M, McMahon P (2012) Unconfined compression strength of reinforced clays with carpet waste fibers. J Geotech Geoenviron 139(3):483–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ASTM D854–14 (2014) Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnometer. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    ASTM D4254–16 (2014) Standard test methods for minimum index density and unit weight of soils and calculation of relative density. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    ASTM D4253–16 (2014) Standard test methods for maximum index density and unit weight of soils using a vibratory table. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    ASTM D5034–09 (2017) Standard test method for breaking strength and elongation of textile fabrics (Grab Test). ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    ASTM D570–98 (2018) Standard test method for water absorption of plastics. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jamshidi Chenari R, Karimpour-Fard M, Maghfarati SP, Pishgar F, Machado SL (2016) An investigation on the geotechnical properties of sand–EPS mixture using large oedometer apparatus. Constr Build Mater 113:773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Casagrande A (1936) The determination of pre-consolidation load and its practical significance. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, vol 3, Cambridge, England, pp 60–64Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fraser AM (1957) The influence of stress ratio on compressibility and pore pressure coefficients in compacted soils. Doctoral dissertation, Imperial College London, University of LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  3. 3.School of Civil, Water and Environmental EngineeringShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations