International Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 443–456 | Cite as

An Experimental Investigation of Convergent Rectangular Surface Jets: Spreading Characteristics of Horizontal Flow over the Bed of Deep and Stagnant Ambient Water

  • Tooba Heidari
  • Nima Shahni KaramzadehEmail author
  • Javad Ahadiyan
Research paper


This study simulated the operation of discharge ducts in desalination plants to examine the effects exerted by the convergence and longitudinal slope of discharge channels on the spreading of horizontally flowing convergent and inclined rectangular surface jets over the bed of deep and stagnant ambient water. To this end, a 3.2 × 0.6 × 0.9 m3 flume was used, and rectangular channels with convergence angles of 12.5°, 25°, 45°, and 90° were designed. The used jet fluid was a salt water solution with a concentration of 45 g/L. The channels were activated to discharge jet fluid tangentially at a constant depth of 0.7 m into the ambient water surface. After the experiments, data analysis was carried out through image routing. Results indicated that flow distribution over the bed was circular and elliptical. The relationship between radial distance from the impingement point to the outer boundary of flow and time was determined to a power of 0.45 under discharge conditions without a longitudinal slope and to powers of 0.57 and 0.42 under discharge conditions characterized by an inclined slope. Finally, the spreading coefficients of the jets at average, major, and minor radial distances are 4, 2, and 4.5, respectively.


Convergence Rectangular surface jet Spreading coefficient Spreading shape Stagnant ambient water 



The experiments were carried out at the Hydraulic Laboratory of the School of Water Science Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. The first author is very appreciative of Dr. N. Shahni karamzadeh and Dr. J. Ahadiyan for their constructive comments on improving this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tooba Heidari
    • 1
  • Nima Shahni Karamzadeh
    • 2
    Email author
  • Javad Ahadiyan
    • 3
  1. 1.River Engineering, School of Sea EngineeringKhorramshahr University of Marine Science and TechnologyKhorramshahrIran
  2. 2.School of Sea EngineeringKhorramshahr University of Marine Science and TechnologyKhorramshahrIran
  3. 3.School of Water Science EngineeringShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran

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