International Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 1327–1340 | Cite as

Clustering Analysis of Drivers Based on Behavioral Characteristics Regarding Road Safety

  • Hamid ShirmohammadiEmail author
  • Farhad Hadadi
  • Moatasem Saeedian
Research Paper


The present study was aimed at identifying driving behaviors and driving skills (i.e., ordinary violations, lack of experience errors, positive behaviors, lack of attention errors, dangerous errors, aggressive violations, perceptual-motor skills, and safety skills) in a large sample of young, middle-aged, and elderly tourists as specific subgroups of drivers based on combinations. Additionally, drivers’ risk-driving behaviors and skill deficits in terms of driving violations and errors, and traffic rule violations and accident involvements as measured by the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory were evaluated. To this end, the questionnaires were completed by 681 participant drivers with three age subgroups (age < 30, age 30–40, age > 40), who had traveled to Baneh city in Iran. Based on a cluster analysis of driving behaviors and driving skills variables, five easily understandable drivers’ subgroups were investigated as safe drivers with low self-confidence, unsafe, and offensive drivers, safe, and skillful drivers, unsafe, and relatively unskilled drivers, and unskilled and relatively unsafe drivers. The drivers differed in terms of self-reported accident involvement, attitudes toward traffic safety and risk perception, and driving violations and errors. Finally, based on annual intentional and unintentional accidents and fines, the clusters were ranked. Then, the clusters were evaluated and analyzed statistically. The results indicated that unsafe and offensive cluster is the first unsafe subgroup among clusters. Safe and skillful cluster is classified as the safest subgroup among clusters.


Tourists Driving behaviors and skills Violations Errors Cluster analysis 



The authors announce that there is not any funding in this paper. All the headings in this paper are not applicable.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Shirmohammadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Farhad Hadadi
    • 1
  • Moatasem Saeedian
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran

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