Advertisement

International Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 355–362 | Cite as

The Feasibility of Using Electromagnetic Waves in Determining Membrane Failure Through Concrete

  • P. Kot
  • A. Shaw
  • M. Riley
  • A. S. Ali
  • A. Cotgrave
Technical Note

Abstract

Concrete flat roof defects, such as water leakage, present a significant and common problem in large buildings, particularly in tropical countries, where rainfall is high. To monitor this condition, effective non-destructive test methods are required to detect problems at an early stage, especially hidden defects within the concrete roof, which are critical. This paper presents the potential use of electromagnetic (EM) waves for determining possible leakage of the concrete flat roof as a result of failure of the waterproof membrane layer. This study was assessed, experimentally by the investigation of the propagation of EM waves through the roof and their interaction with water. Novel Microwave sensors described in the paper operate in the 6–12 GHz frequency range using a Marconi 6200A microwave test set. A range of existing methods were reviewed and analysed. Results of experimental tests confirmed that microwaves could be used as an alternative non-destructive method for identifying water ingress caused by membrane failure into the concrete roof surface.

Keywords

Horn antenna Electromagnetic waves Microwaves Sensor Concrete flat roof Membrane 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the University of Malaya Research Grant (UMRG), Grant No. RP007A/13SUS established at the University of Malaya, Sustainability Science Research Cluster.

References

  1. 1.
    Mailvaganam NP, Collins PG (2004) Workmanship factors influencing quality of installed parking garage waterproofing membranes. J Perform Constr Facil 18(3):121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailey DM, Bradford D (2005) Membrane and flashing defects in low-slope roofing: causes and effects on performance. J Perform Constr Facil 19(3):234–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maksimović M, Stojanović GM, Radovanović M, Malešev M, Radonjanin V, Radosavljević G, Smetana W (2012) Application of a LTCC sensor for measuring moisture content of building materials. Constr Build Mater 26(1):327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gromicko N, Shepard K (2013) Moisture meters for inspectors [online]. http://www.nachi.org/moisture-meters.htm. Accessed 5 Dec 2014
  5. 5.
    McGinley M (2011) Climate of Malaysia [online]. http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/151260/. Accessed 5 Dec 2014
  6. 6.
    Lo YT, Leung WM, Cui HZ (2005) Roof construction defects of medium-rise buildings in sub-tropical climates. Struct Surv 23(3):203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ranasinghe NDS (2010) Maintainability of reinforced concrete flat roofs in Sri Lanka. Struct Surv 28(4):314–329MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CIB and RILEM (1987) New-technology roofing, elastomeric, thermoplastic and polymer-modified bitumen membranes. Batim Int Build Res Pract 15(1–6):146–156Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allen W (1995) The pathology of modern building. Build Res Inf 23(3):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dias WPS, Jayanandana ADC (2003) Condition assessment of a deteriorated cement works. J Perform Constr Facil 17(4):188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wittmann F, Zhang P, Zhao T, Lehmann E, Vontobel P (2008) Neutron radiography, a powerful method for investigating water penetration into concrete. In: Advances in civil engineering material, pp 61–70Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vijayakumar R, Rajasekaran L, Ramamurhy N (2002) Determining the moisture content in limestone concrete by gamma scattering method: a feasibility study. Proceeding, National Seminar of ISNT, Chennai, India, 5–7 Decmber 2002, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Phillipson M, Baker P, Davies M, Ye Z, Galbraith G, McLean R (2008) Suitability of time domain reflectometry for monitoring moisture in building materials. Build Serv Eng Res Technol 29(3):261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grinzato E, Bison PG, Marinetti S (2002) Monitoring of ancient buildings by the thermal method. J Cult Herit 3(1):21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davies M, Ye Z (2009) A ‘pad’ sensor for measuring the moisture content of building materials. Build Serv Eng Res Technol 3(30):263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCullough EA, Kwon M, Shim H (2003) A comparison of standard methods for measuring water vapour permeability of fabrics. Meas Sci Technol 14(8):1402–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yunus MAM, Mukhopadhyay SC (2011) Novel planar electromagnetic sensors for detection of nitrates and contamination. IEEE Sens J 11(6):1440–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korostynska O, Mason A, Al-Shamma’a A (2014) Microwave sensors for the non-invasive monitoring of industrial and medical applications. Sens Rev 34(2):182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sarwate V (1993) Electromagnetic fields and waves. New Age International, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sorrentino R, Bianchi G (2010) Microwave and RF engineering. Wiley, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Balanis C (2005) Antenna theory Analysis and design, 3rd edn. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vijayakumar K, Wylie SR, Cullen JD, Wright CC, Ai-Shamma’a AI (2009) Non invasive rail track detection system using microwave sensor. J Phys Conf Ser 178(1):20–33Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buyukozturk O, Yu T-Y, Ortega JA (2006) A methodology for determining complex permittivity of construction materials based on transmission-only coherent, wide-bandwidth free-space measurements. Cem Concr Compos 28:349–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fear EC, Li X, Hagness SC, Stuchly MA (2002) Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: localization of tumors in three dimensions. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49(8):812–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li Y, Bowler N, Johnson DB (2011) A resonant microwave patch sensor for detection of layer thickness or permittivity variations in multilayered dielectric structures. IEEE Sens J 11(1):5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meissner T, Wentz FJ (2004) The complex dielectric constant of pure and sea water from microwave satellite observations. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 42(9):1836–1849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gadani DH, Rana VA, Bhatnagar SP, Prajapati AN, Vyas AD (2012) Effect of salinity on the dielectric properties of water. Indian J Pure Appl Phys 50:405–410Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Buchner R, Barthel J, Stauber J (1999) The dielectric relaxation of water between 0 °C and 35 °C. Chem Phys Lett 2:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grosvenor CA, Johnk RT, Baker-Jarvis J, Janezic MD, Riddle B (2009) Time-domain free-field measurements of the relative permittivity of building materials. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 58(7):2275–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lawrence C, Van der Veen J, Arballo J (2012) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology [online]. http://planck.caltech.edu/epo/epo-cmbDiscovery3.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2014

Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Kot
    • 1
  • A. Shaw
    • 1
  • M. Riley
    • 1
  • A. S. Ali
    • 2
  • A. Cotgrave
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Built Environment, Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research InstituteLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Built Environment, Center for Construction, Building and Urban Studies (CeBUS)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations