Artificial Neural Network-Based PI-Controlled Reduced Switch Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Operation in Wind Energy Conversion System with Solid-State Transformer

  • Buddhadeva Sahoo
  • Sangram Keshari RoutrayEmail author
  • Pravat Kumar Rout
Research Paper


In this manuscript, artificial neural network PI (ANN-PI)-based controller is presented for a reduced switch cascaded multilevel inverter (RSCMLI) applied to wind energy conversion system (WECS) integrated with a solid-state transformer (SST). To improve the power quality by harmonic reduction, a seven-level RSCMLI is proposed. The utility-side parameters and the dc-link voltage of the inverter are regulated by fuzzy logic and ANN-PI-based controller, respectively. For better operational benefits, SST is applied in the distribution system instead of grid-side converter. The two objectives such as real power control and the reactive power support are provided by the machine interface converter and grid interface converter components of SST, respectively, particularly under insufficient wind energy generation condition. The proposed approach performs seamless fault ride through operation, by following the standard grid code requirements of WECS even under symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault condition. The efficacy of the proposed approach is validated by comparing the results with the PI-controlled conventional inverter under normal, symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault mode of operation.


Artificial neural network PI (ANN-PI)-based controller Wind energy conversion system (WECS) Reduced switch cascaded multilevel inverter (RSCMLI) Solid-state transformer (SST) Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) 


  1. Akagi H, Kanazawa Y, Nabae A (1984) Instantaneous reactive power compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage components. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 3:625–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boyle G (2004) Renewable energy. In: Boyle G (ed) Renewable energy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 456. ISBN-10: 0199261784. ISBN-13: 9780199261789Google Scholar
  3. Brooks JL (1980) Solid state transformer concept development. Civil Engineering Lab (Navy), Port HuenemeGoogle Scholar
  4. Burusteta S, Pou J, Ceballos S, Marino I, Alzola JÁ (2011) Capacitor voltage balance limits in a multilevel-converter-based energy storage system. In: Power electronics and applications (EPE 2011), proceedings of the 2011-14th European conference on 2011 Aug 30. IEEE, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  5. Chavarria J, Biel D, Guinjoan F, Meza C, Negroni JJ (2013) Energy-balance control of PV cascaded multilevel grid-connected inverters under level-shifted and phase-shifted PWMs. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60(1):98–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ekanayake JB, Holdsworth L, Wu X, Jenkins N (2003) Dynamic modeling of doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. IEEE Trans Power Syst 18(2):803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Forghani M, Afsharnia S (2007) Online wavelet transform-based control strategy for UPQC control system. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 22(1):481–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Global Wind Report, Annual market update (2016) Global Wind Energy CouncilGoogle Scholar
  9. Hafez O, Bhattacharya K (2012) Optimal planning and design of a renewable energy based supply system for microgrids. Renew Energy 1(45):7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huber JE, Kolar JW (2014) Volume/weight/cost comparison of a 1MVA 10 kV/400 V solid-state against a conventional low-frequency distribution transformer. In: Energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE). IEEE, pp 4545–4552Google Scholar
  11. Karimi H, Karimi-Ghartemani M, Iravani MR, Bakhshai AR (2003) An adaptive filter for synchronous extraction of harmonics and distortions. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 18(4):1350–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumar S (2004) Neural networks: a classroom approach. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Lei Y, Mullane A, Lightbody G, Yacamini R (2006) Modeling of the wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator for grid integration studies. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 21(1):257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Muller S, Deicke M, De Doncker RW (2002) Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines. IEEE Ind Appl Mag 8(3):26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nagarajan R, Yuvaraj A, Hemalatha V, Logapriya S, Mekala A, Priyanga S (2017) Implementation of PV-based boost converter using PI controller with PSO algorithm. Int J Eng Comput Sci 6(3):6Google Scholar
  16. Netz EO (2006) Grid code; high and extra high voltage. E-one Netz GmbH, Bayreuth. Tech Rep 1:4Google Scholar
  17. Pena R, Clare JC, Asher GM (1996) A doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters supplying an isolated load from a variable speed wind turbine. IEE Proc-Electr Power Appl 143(5):380–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peng FZ, Ott GW, Adams DJ (1998) Harmonic and reactive power compensation based on the generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase four-wire systems. IEEE Trans Power Electron 13(6):1174–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pereda J, Dixon J (2011) High-frequency link: a solution for using only one DC source in asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(9):3884–3892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Polinder H, Van der Pijl FF, De Vilder GJ, Tavner PJ (2006) Comparison of direct-drive and geared generator concepts for wind turbines. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 21(3):725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sahoo B, Routray SK, Rout PK (2018) A new topology with the repetitive controller of a reduced switch seven-level cascaded inverter for a solar PV-battery based microgrid. Eng Sci Technol Int J 21:639–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sefa I, Altin N, Ozdemir S, Kaplan O (2015) Fuzzy PI controlled inverter for grid interactive renewable energy systems. IET Renew Power Gener 9(7):729–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. She X, Huang AQ, Burgos R (2013a) Review of solid-state transformer technologies and their application in power distribution systems. IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron 1(3):186–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. She X, Huang AQ, Wang F, Burgos R (2013b) Wind energy system with integrated functions of active power transfer, reactive power compensation, and voltage conversion. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60(10):4512–4524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. She X, Yu X, Wang F, Huang AQ (2014) Design and demonstration of a 3.6-kV–120-V/10-kVA solid-state transformer for smart grid application. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29(8):3982–3996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tsili M, Papathanassiou S (2009) A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms. IET Renew Power Gener 3(3):308–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wu JC, Chou CW (2014) A solar power generation system with a seven-level inverter. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29(7):3454–3462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhao T, Zeng J, Bhattacharya S, Baran ME, Huang AQ (2009) An average model of solid state transformer for dynamic system simulation. In: Power & energy society general meeting, 2009. PES’09. IEEE, pp 1–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringSiksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University)BhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringSiksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University)BhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations