Effect of Compressor Emergency Shutdown in Various Compressor Station Configurations on Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline

  • Hamed AmeriEmail author
  • Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord
Research Paper


The transient conduct of compressor stations, especially subject to sudden change in conditions, and its effect on performance of natural gas transmission pipeline is one of the most important concerns of operators. The main objective of this paper is to investigate how compressors are arranged in compressor stations, when there is not any standby compressor. Both parallel and series mode have been analyzed for the transient state and it has been determined which of them has more advantages. Considering the boundary conditions in critical conditions, the series arrangement compared to parallel, provides a longer period for the needs of consumers.


Pipeline Compressor stations Compressible flow Parallel Series 

List of Symbols

\( A \)

Cross-sectional area of the pipeline

\( C_{p} \)

Specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)

\( D \)

Pipeline diameter (m)

\( f \)

Friction factor

\( g \)

Gravitational acceleration (m/s2)

\( H \)

Isentropic head (kJ/kg)

\( L \)

Pipeline length (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

\( n \)

Time level

\( N \)

Speed (rpm)

\( P \)

Pressure of the gas (Pa)

\( t \)

Time (s)


Temperature (°C)


Capacity (m3/h)

\( \Delta t \)

Time step (s)

\( \Delta x \)

Time step (s)

\( Z \)

Compressibility factor

Greek Alphabets

\( \varphi \)

Angle of inclination of pipeline (radian)

\( \sigma \)

Isentropic exponent

\( \gamma \)

Specific gravity

\( \eta \)








Standard condition


Number of nodes






Standard condition


  1. Adeosun TA, Olatunde OA, Aderohunmu JO, Ogunjare TO (2009) Development of unsteady-state Weymouth equations for gas volumetric flow rate in horizontal and inclined pipes. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 1(4–5):113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alamian R, Behbahani-Nejad M, Ghanbarzadeh A (2012) A state space model for transient flow simulation in natural gas pipelines. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 9:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amani H, Kariminezhad H, Kazemzadeh H (2016) Development of natural gas flow rate in pipeline networks based on unsteady state Weymouth equation. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 33:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behbahani-Nejad M, Shekari Y (2010) The accuracy and efficiency of reduced-order model for transient flow analysis in gas pipeline. J Pet Sci Eng 73:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bermúdez A, López X, Vázquez-Cendón ME (2016) Numerical solution of non-isothermal non-adiabatic flow of real gases in pipelines. J Comput Phys 323:126–148MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borraz-Sánchez C, Ríos-Mercado RZ. (2005). A hybrid meta-heuristic approach for natural gas pipeline network optimization. In: Blesa MJ, Blum C, Roli A,Sampels M (eds) Hybrid metaheuristics, pp 54–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Botros KK (2008) Dynamic instabilities in industrial compression systems with centrifugal compressors. In: Proceedings of the turbomachinery symposium, Houston, TXGoogle Scholar
  8. Dranchuk PM, Purvis RA, Robinson DB (1974). Computer calculations of natural gas compressibility factors using the Standing and Katz correlation. Institute of Petroleum Technical SeriesGoogle Scholar
  9. Farzaneh-Gord M, Rahbari HR (2013) Investigation of hydrate formation in natural gas flow through underground transmission pipeline. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 15:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farzaneh-Gord M, Rahbari HR (2016) Unsteady natural gas flow within pipeline network, an analytical approach. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 28:397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fasihizadeh M, Sefti MV, Torbati HM (2014) Improving gas transmission networks operation using simulation algorithms: case study of the National Iranian Gas Network. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 20:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Helgaker JF, Oosterkamp A, Langelandsvik LI, Ytrehus T (2014) Validation of 1D flow model for high pressure offshore natural gas pipelines. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 16:44–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kiuchi T (1994) An implicit method for transient gas flows in pipe networks. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 15(5):378–383MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mokhatab S, Santos SP, Cleveland T (2007) Compressor station design criteria. Pipeline Gas J 234:26Google Scholar
  15. Odom FM, Muster GL (1990). Tutorial on modeling of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors. In: 22nd annual meeting pipeline simulation interest group (PSIG)Google Scholar
  16. Pambour KA, Bolado-Lavin R, Dijkema GP (2016) An integrated transient model for simulating the operation of natural gas transport systems. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 28:672–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reddy HP, Narasimhan S, Bhallamudi SM (2006) Simulation and state estimation of transient flow in gas pipeline networks using a transfer function model. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(11):3853–3863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ríos-Mercado RZ, Kim S, Boyd EA (2006) Efficient operation of natural gas transmission systems: a network-based heuristic for cyclic structures. Comput Oper Res 33:2323–2351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tran TH, French S, Ashman R, Kent E (2018) Impact of compressor failures on gas transmission network. Appl Math Model 55:741–757MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Turner WJ, Kwon PJ, Maguire PA (1991) Evaluation of a gas pipeline simulation program. Math Comput Model 15:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vasconcelos CD, Lourenço SR, Gracias AC, Cassiano DA (2013) Network flows modeling applied to the natural gas pipeline in Brazil. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 14:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yuan Z, Deng Z, Jiang M, Xie Y, Wu Y (2015) A modeling and analytical solution for transient flow in natural gas pipelines with extended partial blockage. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 22:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang L (2016) Simulation of the transient flow in a natural gas compression system using a high-order upwind scheme considering the real-gas behaviors. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 28:479–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhou J, Adewumi MA (1995) Simulation of transient flow in natural gas pipelines. In: 27th annual meeting pipeline simulation interest group (PSIG), Albuquerque, New MexicoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringShahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations