Advertisement

Prediction of Wetting-Induced Swelling Using Effective Stress in an Unsaturated Kaolin

  • Ali Reza BagheriehEmail author
  • Muslem Baharvand
  • Mehrashk Meidani
  • Abbas Mahboobi
Research Paper
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

The wetting-induced swelling of unsaturated clayey soils can cause serious damages to buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure and may jeopardize the integrity of these structures. A model is required to predict these volume changes and be considered in the analysis and design of the structures. The volume change induced by wetting depends on many factors such as initial suction, net stress, effective stress, soil fabric, and suction history. Therefore, predicting the wetting-induced swelling is complicated. One of the tools for predicting the volume changes is the effective stress principle. However, the adoption of stress variables for prediction of unsaturated soil behavior is not consensus among the researchers in the geotechnical engineering field. In this paper, we employ the effective stress as a variable to predict the wetting-induced swelling of a commercial kaolin in unsaturated state. A series of oedometric tests are performed on 12 statically compacted kaolin specimens, prepared at three specific dry densities and various moisture contents. The unsaturated specimens are initially consolidated under certain vertical stress and then saturated while the total vertical stress is held constant. The wetting-induced swelling is measured at the end of saturation. One cycle of unloading–reloading is applied to the saturated specimens, and the vertical displacements are measured. The slopes of unloading–reloading paths are determined to be used in volume-change predictions. The prediction of wetting-induced swelling is based on two principles: (1) the validity of effective stress principle for unsaturated soils and (2) the applicability of elastic parameters at the saturated state for unsaturated conditions. The comparisons between the predicted and measured volume changes show the accuracy of this method in predicting the wetting-induced swelling for an unsaturated kaolin clay. The results of this research indicate that the effective stress approach is a powerful, yet simple tool for prediction of wetting-induced swelling in unsaturated clays.

Keywords

Effective stress approach Unsaturated soils Prediction of swelling Coefficient of swelling Clay 

References

  1. Ajdari M, Habibagahi G, Masrouri F (2013) The role of suction and degree of saturation on the hydro-mechanical response of a dual porosity silt–bentonite mixture. Appl Clay Sci 83–84:83–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Homoud A, Basma A, Husein Malkawi A, Al Bashabsheh M (1995) Cyclic swelling behavior of clays. J Geotech Eng 121:562–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso EE, Gens A, Josa A (1990) Constitutive model for partially saturated soils. Géotechnique 40:405–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alonso E, Vaunat J, Gens A (1999) Modelling the mechanical behaviour of expansive clays. Eng Geol 54:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM D5298-10 (2010)  Standard Test Method for Measurement of Soil Potential (Suction) Using Filter Paper, ASTM International.  https://doi.org/10.1520/D5298-10
  6. Bagherieh AR, Khalili N, Habibagahi G, Ghahramani A (2009) Drying response and effective stress in a double porosity aggregated soil. Eng Geol 105:44–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2008.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bardanis M, Kavvadas M (2008) Modifying the Barcelona basic model to account for the residual void ratio and subsequent decrease of shear strength relative to suction. In: Toll et al. (eds), Advances in Geo-Engineering, Proceedings of the 1st Eur. Conf. on Unsaturated Soils, E-UNSAT. pp 589–595Google Scholar
  8. Bishop A (1959) The effective stress principle. Teknisk Ukeblad 39:859–863Google Scholar
  9. Buzzi O, Fityus S, Sloan S (2007) A proposition for a simple volume change model for saturated expansive soils. Numerical Models in Geomechanics—NUMOG X, Rhodos, pp 99–104Google Scholar
  10. Buzzi O, Fityus S, Giacomini A (2011) Towards a dimensionless description of soil swelling behaviour. Géotechnique 61:271–277.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.7.00194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen FH (1965) The use of piers to prevent uplifting of lightly loaded structures founded on expansive soils. In: Proceeding of international research and engineering conference on expansive clay soils, Texas A & M PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Dakshanamurthy V (1979) A stress-controlled study of swelling characteristics of compacted expansive clays. Geotech Test J 2:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Estabragh A, Moghadas M, Javadi A (2013) Effect of different types of wetting fluids on the behaviour of expansive soil during wetting and drying. Soils Found 53:617–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fityus S, Smith D, Allman M (2004) Expansive soil test site near Newcastle NOVA. The University of Newcastle’s Digital RepositoryGoogle Scholar
  15. Fredlund DG, Morgenstern NR (1977) Stress state for unsaturated soils. J Geotech Eng Div 103:447–466Google Scholar
  16. Fredlund D, Morgenstern NR, Widger R (1978) The shear strength of unsaturated soils. Can Geotech J 15:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ikizler SB, Aytekin M, Vekli M, Kocabaş F (2010) Prediction of swelling pressures of expansive soils using artificial neural networks. Adv Eng Softw 41:647–655CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Jahangir E, Deck O, Masrouri F (2013) An analytical model of soil–structure interaction with swelling soils during droughts. Comput Geotech 54:16–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2013.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jennings J, Burland J (1962) Limitations to the use of effective stresses in partly saturated soils. Géotechnique 12:125–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jennings J, Knight K (1957) The prediction of total heave from the double oedometer test. Proc Symp Expans Clays 9:13–19Google Scholar
  21. Khalili N, Khabbaz M (1998) A unique relationship of chi for the determination of the shear strength of unsaturated soils. Géotechnique 48:681–687.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1998.48.5.681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lloret M, Sanchez M, Wheeler S (2009) Generalised elasto-plastic stress-strain and modified suction-degree of saturation relations of a fully coupled model. In: 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Unsaturated Soils. Newcastle, Australia, pp 667–672Google Scholar
  23. Loret B, Khalili N (2000) A three-phase model for unsaturated soils. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 24:893–927CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Loret B, Khalili N (2002) An effective stress elastic–plastic model for unsaturated porous media. Mech Mater 34:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manzanal D, Pastor M, Fernández Merodo JA (2009)  A unified constitutive model for unsaturated soils based on generalised plasticity theory. In: Unsaturated Soils–Theoretical & Numerical Advances in Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, CRC Press, pp 655–660Google Scholar
  26. Mašín D, Khalili N (2016) Swelling phenomena and effective stress in compacted expansive clays. Can Geotech J 53:134–147.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2014-0479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ng CWW, Menzies B (2007) Advanced unsaturated soil mechanics and engineering. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Ng CW, Pang Y (2000) Experimental investigations of the soil-water characteristics of a volcanic soil. Can Geotech J 37:1252–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nowamooz H, Masrouri F (2009) Density-dependent hydromechanical behaviour of a compacted expansive soil. Eng Geol 106:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nowamooz H, Masrouri F (2010) Influence of suction cycles on the soil fabric of compacted swelling soil. C R Geosci 342:901–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nowamooz H, Jahangir E, Masrouri F (2013) Volume change behaviour of a swelling soil compacted at different initial states. Eng Geol 153:25–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2012.11.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nowamooz H, Jahangir E, Masrouri F, Tisot J-P (2016) Effective stress in swelling soils during wetting drying cycles. Eng Geol 210:33–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nuth M, Laloui L (2008a) Advances in modelling hysteretic water retention curve in deformable soils. Comput Geotech 35:835–844CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. Nuth M, Laloui L (2008b) Effective stress concept in unsaturated soils: clarification and validation of a unified framework. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 32:771–801CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. Ofoegbu G, Dasgupta B, Manepally C, Stothoff S, Fedors R (2017) Modeling the mechanical behavior of unsaturated expansive soils based on Bishop principle of effective stress. Environ Earth Sci 76:555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pereira JM, Wong H, Dubujet P, Dangla P (2005) Adaptation of existing behaviour models to unsaturated states: application to CJS model. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 29:1127–1155CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. Puppala AJ, Pedarla A, Hoyos LR, Zapata C, Bheemasetti TV (2016) A semi-empirical swell prediction model formulated from ‘clay mineralogy and unsaturated soil’ properties. Eng Geol 200:114–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rajkai K, Kabos S, Van Genuchten MT, Jansson P-E (1996) Estimation of water-retention characteristics from the bulk density and particle-size distribution of swedish soils. Soil Sci 161:832–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Russell AR, Khalili N (2004) A bounding surface plasticity model for sands exhibiting particle crushing. Can Geotech J 41:1179–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Santagiuliana R, Schrefler B (2006) Enhancing the Bolzon–Schrefler–Zienkiewicz constitutive model for partially saturated soil. Transp Porous Media 65:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sheng D (2011) Review of fundamental principles in modelling unsaturated soil behaviour. Comput Geotech 38:757–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sivakumar V, Zaini J, Gallipoli D, Solan B (2015) Wetting of compacted clays under laterally restrained conditions: initial state, overburden pressure and mineralogy. Géotechnique 65:111–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tu H, Vanapalli SK (2016) Prediction of the variation of swelling pressure and one-dimensional heave of expansive soils with respect to suction using the soil-water retention curve as a tool. Can Geotech J 53:1213–1234.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2015-0222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vanapalli S, Lu L (2012) A state-of-the art review of 1-D heave prediction methods for expansive soils. Int J Geotech Eng 6:15–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vanapalli SK, Lu L, Sedano JI, Oh W (2012) Swelling characteristics of sand-bentonite mixtures. Unsaturated soils: research and applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang G, Wei X (2015) Modeling swelling–shrinkage behavior of compacted expansive soils during wetting–drying cycles. Can Geotech J 52:783–794.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2014-0059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wijaya M, Leong EC (2015) Swelling and collapse of unsaturated soils due to inundation under one-dimensional loading. Indian Geotech J 46:239–251.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-015-0172-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yang H, Rahardjo H, Leong E-C, Fredlund DG (2004) Factors affecting drying and wetting soil-water characteristic curves of sandy soils. Can Geotech J 41:908–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang J, Sun D, Zhou A, Jiang T (2016) Hydromechanical behaviour of expansive soils with different suctions and suction histories. Can Geotech J 53:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2014-0366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhou A, Sheng D, Carter J (2012) Modelling the effect of initial density on soil-water characteristic curves. Géotechnique 62:669–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringMalayer UniversityMalayerIran
  2. 2.Group Delta Consultants, Inc.Irvine, CAUSA

Personalised recommendations