Advertisement

Experimental Study on Effect of Water–Cement Ratio and Sand Grading on Workability and Mechanical Properties of Masonry Mortars in Iran

  • S. M. DehghanEmail author
  • M. A. Najafgholipour
  • V. Baneshi
  • M. Rowshanzamir
Research Paper
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

The main role of mortars in masonry walls is to bind individual units such as brick, stone, and block together, as well as to distribute the stresses uniformly. Knowing the mechanical properties of fresh and hardened mortar is crucial to ensure proper performance of masonry walls and buildings. Water–cement ratio (W/C) and sand grading are among several parameters that affect the behavior of fresh and hardened mortars. This experimental study investigates the effects of common sand grading in Iran and W/C on the flow and workability of fresh mortars and the mechanical properties of hardened mortars. Using fine and coarse sands, cement–sand mortar and cement–lime–sand mortar with three different cement contents were manufactured. Three various W/Cs were considered for each mortar mix; overall, 36 kinds of mortar mixes were studied. Standard samples were tested to determine compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, and flow of mortars. Results were analyzed to find different practical relationships among compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, and W/C. Results show that by increasing W/C, usually the strength of the hardened mortar decreases and the flow of the fresh mortar increases. Furthermore, cement–sand mortar with fine sand has less compressive strength, flexural strength, and elastic modules compared to mortar with coarser grading sand. Also, mortar with fine sand needs around 25% more water to attain the same flow and workability compared to the mortar with coarse sand.

Keywords

Flow of mortar Strength of mortar Water/cement ratio Sand grading Masonry buildings 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbagana M, Tim GH, Aliyu A (2015) Importance of sand grading on the compressive strength and stiffness of lime mortar in small scale model studies. Open J Civil Eng 5:372–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amadio C, Rajgelj S (1999) Shear behavior of brick-mortar joints. Mason Int 5:19–22Google Scholar
  3. Anderson C, Held LC (1986) The effect of sand grading on mortar properties and tensile bond strength of brickwork specimens. Proc Br Mason Soc 1:1–6Google Scholar
  4. Appa Rao G (2001) Generalization of Abrams’ law for cement mortars. Cem Concr Res 31:495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM C1437-15 (2015) Standard test method for flow of hydraulic cement mortar. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM C144-11 (2011) Standard specification for aggregate for masonry mortar. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM C109-16 (2016) Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  8. ASTM C305-14 (2014) Standard practice for mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement pastes and mortars of plastic consistency. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  9. ASTM C348-14 (2014) Standard test method for flexural strength of hydraulic cement mortars. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  10. ASTM C469-14 (2014) Test Method for static modulus of elasticity and poisson’s ratio of concrete in compression. Am Soc Test MaterGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkinson RH, Amadei BP, Saeb S, Sture S (1989) Response of masonry bed joints in direct shear. Struct Eng 115:2277–2296Google Scholar
  12. Binda L, Tiraboschi C, Abbaneo S (1997) Experimental research to characterize masonry materials. Masonry Int 10:592–601Google Scholar
  13. Eurocode6 (1996) Design of masonry structures -part1: rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry. Eur Stand CodeGoogle Scholar
  14. Haach VG, Vasconcelos G, Lourenco B (2011) Influence of aggregates grading and water/cement ratio in workability and hardened properties of mortars. Construct Build Mater 25:2980–2987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lawrence SJ, Cao HT (1988) Microstructure of the interface between brick and mortar. In: Proceedings of the eighth international brick/block masonry conference, vol 2. pp 194–204Google Scholar
  16. Maheri MR, Motielahi F, Najafgholipour MA (2011) The effects of pre and post construction moisture condition on the in-plane and out-of-plane strengths of brick walls. Mater Struct 44:541–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mazroui A, Yaghoubifar A, Jafarpour F (2012) Experimental study of mechanical properties of common sand and cement mortars (for masonry). Building and Housing Research Center, TehranGoogle Scholar
  18. MSJC-13 (2013) Building code requirements and specification for masonry structures, Masonry Standard Joint Committee’s (MSJC) BookGoogle Scholar
  19. Reddy BVV, Gupta A (2008) Influence of sand grading on the characteristics of mortars and soil–cement block masonry. Construct Build Mater 22:1614–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roberti GM, Binda L, Cardani G (1997) Numerical modeling of shear bond tests on small brick-masonry assemblages. In: Proceedings of the computer methods in structural masonry conference, Florence, Italy, vol 4. pp 145–152Google Scholar
  21. Sébaïbi Y, Dheilly RM, Quéneudec M (2003) Study of the water-retention capacity of a lime–sand mortar: influence of the physicochemical characteristics of the lime. Cem Concr Res 3:689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Balen K, Van Gemert D (1990) Lime–cement mortars compared to the commonly used cement mortars in Belgium. University of Belgium, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  23. Venu Madhava Rao K, Venkatarama Reddy BV, Jagadish KS (1996) Flexural bond strength of masonry using various blocks and mortars. Mater Struct (RILEM) 29:119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Dehghan
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. A. Najafgholipour
    • 1
  • V. Baneshi
    • 2
  • M. Rowshanzamir
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of TechnologyShirazIran
  2. 2.Graduate Student of Civil and Environmental EngineeringShiraz University of TechnologyShirazIran

Personalised recommendations