Microhardness Characterization of Fe- and Co-Based Superalloys

  • Ibrahim KaracaEmail author
  • Selva Büyükakkas
Research Paper


The reverse indentation load-size effects of Fe–Mn–Si and Co–Mn–Si superalloy have been investigated by measuring Vickers hardness. The characterized superalloy samples are presented in the reverse indentation load-size effects, which is known as the microhardness increases with increasing applied load behavior. The theoretical model is rearranged and investigated according to the reverse indentation load-size effects using reconstituted Meyer law, proportional specimen resistance model, and modified proportional specimen resistance model. The reconstituted modified proportional specimen resistance model is highly suitable for describing the data of the Fe–Mn–Si and Co–Mn–Si alloys. SEM micrographs show that Co-based alloys exhibited a dendritic microstructure and Fe-based alloys were presented austenitic microstructure. In this study, the load range from 0.49 to 9.8 N was applied to the materials, but no crack is observed on the surface of the material. This can only be attributed to the occurrence of the elastic deformation which yields reverse indentation size effect in these samples.


Superalloy SEM Microhardness Reverse indentation size effects (RISE) Fe–Mn–Si Co–Mn–Si 


  1. Atkinson M (1995) Further analysis of the size effect in indentation hardness tests of some metals. Mater Res 10(11):2908–2915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bekteş M, Uzun O, Aktürk S, Ekinci AE, Uçar N (2004) Vickers microhardness studies of Fe–Mn binary alloys. Chin J Phys 42(6):733–739Google Scholar
  3. Budiarsa IN (2013) Indentation size effect (ISE) of Vickers hardness in steels: correlation with H/E. Appl Mech Mater 391:23–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Callister WD, Rethwisch DG (2009) Materials science and engineering, an introduction, 8th edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  5. Dogruer M, Yildirim G, Ozturk O, Varilci A, Soylu N, Gorur O, Terzioglu C (2013) Investigation of microstructural, Vickers microhardness and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3−xGdxO7−δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.150) superconducting ceramics via experimental and theoretical approaches. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 24(4):1264–1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Emam Islam S, Abdel-Karim R, Waheed A, Saber D (2015) High-temperature cyclic oxidation of Ni and Fe-based superalloys at 850 °C in air. IJEIT 4(7):168–171Google Scholar
  7. Gong J, Wu J, Guan Z (1999) Analysis of the indentation size effect on the apparent hardness for ceramics. Mater Lett 38(3):197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Güder HS, Şahin E, Şahin O, Göçmez H, Çetinkara HA (2011) Vickers and Knoop indentation microhardness study of β-SiAlON ceramic. Acta Phys Pol A 120(6):1026–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jovanovich MT, Lukic B, Miskovic Z, Bobic I, Cvijovic I, Dimcic B (2007) Processing and some applications of nickel, cobalt, and titanium-based alloys. Metal J Metall 13:91–106Google Scholar
  10. Kavetskyy T, Borc J, Sangwal K, Tsmots V (2010) Indentation size effect and Vickers microhardness measurement of metal-modified arsenic chalcogenide glasses. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 12(10):2082–2091Google Scholar
  11. Kiliçaslan MF, Yilmaz F, Ergen S, Hong SJ, Uzun O (2013) Microstructure and microhardness of melt-spun Al–25Si–5Fe–XCo (X = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys. Mater Charact 77:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kölemen U, Çelebi S, Karal H, Öztürk A, Çevik U, Nezir S, Görür O (2004) Superconducting and Vickers hardness properties of ZnO-added YBCO polycrystalline superconductors. Phys Status Solidi (b) 241(2):274–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Levitin V (2006) High-temperature strain of metals and alloys. Physical fundamentals. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  14. Li H, Bradt RC (1996) The effect of indentation-induced cracking on the apparent microhardness. J Mater Sci 31(4):1065–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Machaka R, Derry TE, Sigalas I, Herrmann M (2011) Analysis of the indentation size effect in the microhardness measurements in B6O. Adv Mater Sci Eng vol 2011, Article ID 539252.
  16. Sahin O, Uzunoglu S, Sahin E (2015) Mechanical characterization of CoCrMo alloys consisting of different palladium ratios produced by investment casting method. Acta Phys Pol A 128(2-B):B149–B151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sangwal K (2000) On the reverse indentation size effect and microhardness measurement of solids. Mater Chem Phys 63:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sangwal K, Surowska B (2003) Study of indentation size effect and microhardness of SrLaAlO4 and SrLaGaO4 single crystals. Mater Res Innov 7(2):91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sangwal K, Surowska B, Błaziak P (2002) Analysis of the indentation size effect in the microhardness measurement of some cobalt-based alloys. Mater Chem Phys 77:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sangwal K, Surowska B, Błaziak P (2003) Relationship between indentation size effect and material properties in the microhardness measurement of some cobalt-based alloys. Mater Chem Phys 80:428–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sebastian S, Khadar MA (2005) Microhardness indentation size effect studies in 60B2O3-(40-x)PbO-xMCl2 and 50B2O3(50-x)PbO-xMCl2 (M = Pb, Cd) glasses. J Mater Sci 40(7):1655–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Toplu A, Karaca I, Kölemen U (2015) Calculation of true hardness value of Zn added (BiPb) SrCaCuO superconductor by different models. Ceram Int 41(1):953–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wade J, Claydon P, Wu H (2014) Plastic deformation and cracking resistance of SiC ceramics measured by indentation. In: American Ceramics Society (ACerS), mechanical properties and performance of engineering ceramics and composites IX: ceramic engineering and science proceedings, vol 35, 2nd edn, pp 91–100. Wiley-American Ceramic SocietyGoogle Scholar
  24. Yilmaz F, Uzun O, Kolemen U, Kilicaslan MF, Basman N, Ergen S, Ozturk K, Yanmaz E (2013) Nanoindentation study on Gd-deposited YBaCuO superconductor. Bull Mater Sci 36(7):1139–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physic, Faculty of Arts and ScienceNiğde Ömer Halisdemir UniversityNigdeTurkey

Personalised recommendations