Influence of Transition Elements Dopants on Physical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanofilms

  • Mehrane NematiEmail author
  • Mohammad yuonesi
Review Paper


Pure and doped zinc oxide nanofilms were deposited onto glass substrates by the sol–gel method. Doping can change structural, optical and magnetic properties of matter. In this research, transition elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Mn) were chosen as dopants because of their ferromagnetic property at room temperature. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of pure and doped zinc oxide were experimentally investigated. The band gap and absorption edge of nanofilms were determined, and the optical constants of films were calculated by the Cauchy formula. Transmittance spectrum, XRD diffraction and hysteresis loop were measured, and spontaneous and saturation magnetic moment of samples was calculated. Results of our measurements show Mn-doped samples are paramagnetic and the others are ferromagnetic, and band gap variation does not follow a specific pattern. Controlling dopant concentrations improves matter properties, so different Mn and Ni concentrations on ZnO nanolayers were prepared and investigated for finding out the effect of different concentrations of dopants on ZnO properties. In the case of different Mn concentrations, the band gap was decreased in low doping (Mn < 3%) and increased for high concentration (Mn > 3%), and this is due to the exchange interaction between the localized d shell electrons of the magnetic ions and the delocalized band states. Results of investigating different concentrations of Ni indicate that low Ni concentration slightly increases the band gap and high concentration of Ni leads to a decrease in the band gap. This phenomenon is due to the magnetic property of Ni and quantum confinement that can increase the band gap.


Zinc oxide Sol–gel Nanofilm Dopant Band gap 


  1. Ashcroft NW (1976) Solid state physics. Saunders College Publishing, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Atikur R, Chitrashi M (2015) Study of nanostructured Co and Al doped ZnO films. Int J Adv Res Innov 3(4):669–673Google Scholar
  3. Bylsma RB, Becker WM, Kossut J, Debska U, Yoder-Short D (1986) Dependence of energy gap on x and T in Zn1−x Mnx Se: the role of exchange interaction. Phys Rev B. Google Scholar
  4. Cho YM, Choo WK, Kim H, Kim D, Ihm Y (2002) Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the ferromagnetic properties of sputtered Zn1−x (Co0.05 Fe0.05) thin films. Appl Phys Lett 80:3358–3360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Croxall DF, Ward RCC, Wallace CA, Kell RC (1974) Hydrothermal growth and investigation of Li-doped zinc oxide crystals of high purity and perfection. J Cryst Growth 22:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dhruvashi M, Tanemura M, Shishodial PK (2016) Ferromagnetism in sol–gel derived ZnO: Mn Nano crystalline thin films. Adv Mater Lett. Google Scholar
  7. Galli G, Coker JE (1970) Epitaxial ZnO on sapphire. Appl Phys Lett. Google Scholar
  8. Gandhi V, Ganesan Ravi, Syedahamed AHH, Thaiyan M (2014) Effect of cobalt doping on structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation method. Chem C, Phys. Scholar
  9. Ivanov P, Llobet E, Vilanova X, Brezmes J, Hubalek J, Correig X (2004) Development of high gas response ethanol gas sensors based on Pt-doped SnO2 surfaces. Sens Actuators B Chem 99(2–3):201–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jain A, Sagar P, Mehra RM (2007) Changes of structural, optical and electrical properties of sol–gel derived ZnO films with their thickness. Mater Sci Pol 25:233–242Google Scholar
  11. Karmakar R, Neogi SK, Banerjee A, Bandyopadhyay S (2012) Structural; morphological; optical and magnetic properties of Mn doped ferromagnetic ZnO thin film. Appl Surf Sci 263:671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim KJ, Park YR (2002) Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of optical transitions in Zn1−x CoxO alloys. Appl Phys Lett 81:1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kittel C (1983) Introduction to solid state physics. Wiley Eastern Limited, HobokenzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Koidl P (1977) Optical absorption of Co2+ in ZnO. Phys Rev B 15:2493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee JH, Park BO (2003) Transparent conducting ZnO: Al, In and Sn thin films deposited by the sol–gel method. Thin Solid Films 426:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Look DC (2001) Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices. Mat Sci Eng B. Google Scholar
  17. Norton DP, Ivill M, Kwon YW, Erie JM, Kim HS, Ip K, Pearton SJ, Heo YW, Kim S, Kang BS, Hebard F, Kelly J (2006) Charge carrier and spin doping in ZnO thin films. Thin Solid Films 496:160–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Qi Q, Zhang T, Wang S, Zheng X (2009) Humidity sensing properties of KCl-doped ZnO nanofibers with super-rapid response and recovery. Sens Actuators B Chem. Google Scholar
  19. Saeki H, Tabata H, Kawai T (2001) Magnetic and electric properties of vanadium doped ZnO films. Solid State Commun 120:439–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Senthilkumar S, Rajendran K, Banerjee S, Chini TK, Sengodan V (2008) Influence of Mn doping on the microstructure and optical property of ZnO. Mater Sci Semicond Process. Google Scholar
  21. Shiloh M, Gutman J (1971) Growth of ZnO single crystals by chemical vapour transport. J Cryst Growth 11:105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shinde VR, Gujar TP, Lokhande CD, Mane RS, Han SH (2005) Mn doped and undoped ZnO films: A comparative structural, optical and electrical properties study. Mater Chem Phys. Google Scholar
  23. Shuxia G, Xingtang Z, Yabin H, Yuncai L, Zuliang D (2008) Investigation on electronic structures and nature of charge-transfer transition of ZnO: Co with variation of Co content. Chem Phys Lett 459:82–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stambolova I, Blaskov V, Vassilev S, Shipochka M, Loukanov A (2012) Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on physicochemical properties of TiO2–SnO2 2-sol–gel films. Bull Matter Sci 35(4):645–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xu L, Su J, Chen Y, Zheng G, Pei S, Sun T, Wang J, Lai M (2012) Optical and structural properties of ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel technique. J Alloys Compd. Google Scholar
  26. Yuonesi, M., Properties of wide band gap nanofilm semiconductors alloyed with transition metal elements, PhD thesis, (2010). Shahrood University of Technology, physics department, p 270Google Scholar
  27. Yuonesi M, Pakdel A (2010) Effect of low concentration of nickel on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanofilms. Phys B 405:2083–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yuonesi M, Ghazi ME, Izadiffard M, Yaghobi MY (2008) The optical and structural properties of ZnO: Mn nano films grown by sol–gel. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 10:2603–2606Google Scholar
  29. Zhang YB, Li S, Tan TT, Park HS (2006) Optical properties of bulk Zn1−xCoxO magnetic semiconductors. Solid State Commun 137:142–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang S, Hu F, He J, Cheng W, Liu Q, Jiang Y, Pan Z, Yan W, Sun Z, Wei S (2013) Interplay between occupation sites of (Co, Cu) codopants and crystal orientation of ZnO matrix. J Phys Chem C 117:24913–24919CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAyatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityAmolIran

Personalised recommendations