The Effect of the Midlatitude Electron Density Trough on the Ionospheric Conductivities

  • Erdinç TimoçinEmail author
  • İbrahim Ünal
  • Ali Yeşil
Research Paper


In this study, we have investigated the effect of midlatitude electron density trough on ionospheric conductivities for different altitudes. For this purpose, parallel conductivity (σ0), Pedersen conductivity (σ1) and Hall conductivity (σ2) data were calculated by using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model for seven different geographic coordinates in the midlatitude region of the northern hemisphere during the June and December solstices of 1972. Planetary geomagnetic activity index (\(K_{p}\)) data are used as a geomagnetic activity indicator. These conductivity values computed for each position were classified according to geomagnetic active (\(K_{p} > 2^{ + }\)) and geomagnetic quiet (\(K_{p} \le 2^{ + }\)) conditions; and these values were examined according to invariant magnetic latitudes (Λ) for different heights, seasonal, geomagnetic activity and local times. From the analysis results, it is found that the midlatitude electron density trough does not have any effects on σ0 for all situations, but the trough is influential on σ1 and σ2 during night hours of the December solstices. In addition, it was observed that the trough increased its effect on σ1 and σ2 with the increasing geomagnetic activity level and altitude for December solstices.


Ionosphere Ionospheric conductivities Midlatitude electron density trough Magnetosphere 


  1. Antoni S, Curto JJ (2015) Recovering of local magnetic K-indices from global magnetic Kp-indices using neural networks: an application to Antarctica. Ann Geophys 58(4):G0440. Google Scholar
  2. Borislav A et al (2004) Analogue model, relating Kp index to solar wind parameters. J Atmos Solar Terr Phys 66:927–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. He M et al (2011) A study on the night time midlatitude ionospheric trough. J Geophys Res 116:A05315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kersley L et al (1997) Imaging of electron density troughs by tomographic techniques. Radio Sci 32–4:1607–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lee IT et al (2011) The ionospheric mid-latitude trough observed by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC during solar minimum. J Geophys Res 116:A06311. Google Scholar
  6. Mikhailov AV, Leschinskaya TY (2011) Ionospheric altitude profiles in the main ionospheric trough as observed by field-aligned EISCAT incoherent scatter radar observations. J Atmos Terr Phys 73:488–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mukhtarov P et al (2013) Global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity. J Geophys Res Space Phys 118:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pryse SE et al (2006) Parameterization of the main ionospheric trough in the European sector. Radio Sci 41:RS5S14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Rishbeth H, Garriott OK (1969) Introduction to ionospheric physics. Academic Press, New York, pp 132–138Google Scholar
  10. Rothkaehl H et al (2000) Application of a trough model for telecommunication purposes. Phys Chem Earth 25(4):315–318Google Scholar
  11. Stamper R et al (2004) Nowcasting, forecasting and warning for ionospheric propagation: tools and methods. Ann Geophys 47:957–983Google Scholar
  12. Timoçin E (2016) The investigation of the time dependence on the ionospheric mid-latitude foF2 variability and comparison with the relevant results of the Ariel 4 satellite ambient electron density during the declining phases of the solar cycle 20 and solar cycle 21. PhD Thesis, İnönü University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Malatya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  13. Tulunay YK (1972a) Some topside electron density measurements made by the Ariel 3 satellite during the geomagnetic storm of May 25–27 1967. Planet Space Sci 20:1299–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tulunay YK (1972b) Magnetically symmetrical detection of the mid-latitude electron density trough by the Ariel 3 satellite. J Atmos Terr Phys 34:1547–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tulunay YK (1973) Global electron density distributions from the Ariel 3 satellite at mid-latitudes during quiet magnetic periods. J Atmos Terr Phys 35:233–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tulunay YK (1974) Mid-latitude ionosphere as observed by satellites Ariel 3 and Ariel 4. B Am Meteorol Soc 55(6):650Google Scholar
  17. Tulunay YK, Grebowsky JM (1975a) Temporal variations in the dawn and dusk mid-latitude trough position-measured (Ariel 3, Ariel 4) and modeling. Ann Geophys 31:29–38Google Scholar
  18. Tulunay YK, Grebowsky JM (1975b) Temporal variations in dawn and dusk mid-latitude trough positions. EOST Am Geophys 56(3):172Google Scholar
  19. Tulunay YK, Grebowsky JM (1978) The noon and midnight mid-latitude trough as seen by Ariel 4. J Atmos Terr Phys 40:845–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tulunay YK, Sayers J (1971) Characteristics of mid-latitude trough as determined by the electron density experiments on Ariel 3. J Atmos Terr Phys 33:1737–1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tulunay Y et al. (2003b) Spatial prediction of foF2 in modeling the influence of trough on HF communication by using neural networks. In: 3rd COST 271 workshop proceedings, Spetses, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  22. Tulunay Y et al. (2015) Revisiting the influence of the mid-latitude electron density trough as the ionospheric projection of the Plasmapause at about 550 km altitude on high frequency communication. In: 12th European space weather week book of abstracts, 23–27 November, Oostende-Belgium, p 132Google Scholar
  23. Tulunay E et al (2000) Temporal and spatial forecasting of the foF2 values up to twenty four hours in advance. Phys Chem Earth (C) 25(4):281–284Google Scholar
  24. Tulunay Y et al (2001) An attempt to model the influence of the trough on HF communication by using neural networks. Radio Sci 36(5):1027–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tulunay YK et al (2003) Revisiting the Ariel trough work for HF telecommunication purposes. Cosmic Res J 41(4):1–13Google Scholar
  26. Whitten RC, Poppoff IG (1971) Fundamentals of aeronomy. Wiley, New York, pp 219–235Google Scholar
  27. Yeşil A et al. (2016) The investigation of the mid-latitude electron density trough by using foF2 data taken from IRI and ionosondes for geomagnetic quiet conditions. In: Eighth workshop solar influences on the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, book of abstracts, 30 May–03 June, Sozopol-Bulgaria, p 11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Services and TechniquesMersin UniversityMersinTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Science Teaching, Faculty of EducationUniversity of İnönüMalatyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of FıratElazigTurkey

Personalised recommendations