Variation in Yield and Composition of Perilla frutescens Essential Oil Across Altitudinal Gradients in the Indian Himalayan Region
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The production and consumption of essential oils and perfumes are increasing very fast. As a result, there is an improvement of the overall yield and quality of essential oils. The production technologies pertaining to essential oil processing are of great significance and are still being used in many parts of the world. The present study was conducted on the biochemical analysis of active principles in the essential oil composition of mature leaves of Perilla frutescens cultivated in three different village clusters, i.e. Udaibag, Dharkot and Papradi along altitudinal gradients in the Indian Himalayan region. Twelve active compounds were identified in this investigation, the composition of which varied greatly with the altitude. Perillaketone (17.5–62%) and Iso-egomaketone (29.8–32.8%) were the dominant active principles identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients emphasized that the altitudinal trends in environmental variables influenced the essential oil content and its composition. The variations in the composition and yield of the essential oil may be attributed to the existence of chemotype and would be helpful for identification of principal component across the altitudinal gradients in the Himalayan region.
KeywordsPerilla frutescens Mature leaves Essential oil Altitudinal gradients Himalaya
The authors are grateful to Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, Government of India for providing financial support to the first author (DST/INSPIRE FELLOWSHIP/2012/559). We are grateful to Dr. A. Arunachalam, Dr. U. Kumar, Dr. H. Andola and local people of the study area for their precious cooperation. Research facility at Doon University, Dehradun and advanced instrumentation research facility at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi utilized for this study are gratefully acknowledged.
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