Amoxicillin-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles of Less than 100 nm: Design, Preparation and Antimicrobial Activity Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
- 38 Downloads
Amoxicillin is commonly used to treat a wide range of infections, but its use is limited by a relatively short biological half-life. This study developed a controlled-release amoxicillin nanoformulation and evaluated its antibacterial activity. The nanoparticles were synthesized by ionic gelation method assisted by sonication and characterized by Fourier transformed infrared, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial effect was studied using micro-dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Inhibition zone diameters of nanoformulation were also compared to those of the free amoxicillin. Sonication reduced the average size of nanoparticles by 70%. The encapsulation efficiency was 95 ± 2%. In vitro release studies showed the initial burst release in the first 10 h and continuous slow release up to the end. The antimicrobial results indicated that the amoxicillin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were more effective than free amoxicillin against methicillin-susceptible- and methicillin-resistant forms of Staphylococcus aureus. The results highlight that the chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate concentration and the sonication has a significant influence on nanoparticle size. The optimized chitosan nanoparticles with proper size and controlled release of β-lactam antibiotics may be a good candidate for treating antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
KeywordsDrug delivery Amoxicillin Nanoparticles Chitosan Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Financial assistance from Iran National Science Foundation (INSF), Grant no. 94014310 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors sincerely thank Mrs. Zahra Zahedi for help with the DLS experiments.
MH contributed in conception of the work, study design, conducting the study, manuscript preparation, revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work. AT contributed in conception of the work, conducting the study, data analysis, revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Athar M, Das AJ (2014) Therapeutic nanoparticles: state-of-the-art of nanomedicine. Adv Mater Rev 1:25–37Google Scholar
- Aydin R, Pulat M (2012) 5-Fluorouracil encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles for pH-stimulated drug delivery: evaluation of controlled release kinetics. J Nanomater 2012:42–52Google Scholar
- Chattopadhyay D, Inamdar M (2012) Studies on synthesis, characterization and viscosity behaviour of nano chitosan. Res J Eng Sci 1:9–15Google Scholar
- Gresser U (2001) Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy may be associated with severe side effects-review of the literature. Eur J Med 6:139–149Google Scholar
- Kumar D, Dharmendra S, Jhansee M, Shrikant N, Pandey SP (2011) Development and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with amoxicillin. Int Res J Phar 2:145–511Google Scholar
- Tiyaboonchai W (2003) Chitosan nanoparticles: a promising system for drug delivery. Naresuan Univ J 11:51–66Google Scholar