Flavonoid Diversity and Morphological Variations Among Seven Phlomis Species in Zagros, Iran

  • Fatemeh Aghakhani Kaaji
  • Navaz KharazianEmail author
Research Paper


This study investigates the variation of flavonoid patterns and morphological diversity among seven Phlomis species in the Zagros region of Iran. Morphological studies were carried out using 39 characters. The flavonoid compounds were extracted from leaves using methanol and thin-layer chromatography. To determine the flavonoid classes, column chromatography and ultraviolet absorption (200–400 nm) were applied. The taxonomic status, variation of flavonoid and morphological information were identified by cluster analysis with Simple Matching coefficient and NTSYS pc v.2.2. The morphological results revealed that Phlomis olivieri clearly exhibited high variations. A total of 31 flavonoids were found including 13 isoflavones, 15 flavones, two chalcones and one flavonol which is first reported in Iran. Cluster analysis of flavonoid profiles detected that the members of Phlomis sub-section Oxyphlomis and Phlomis sub-section Gymnophlomis were definitely characterized. Phlomis kurdica was strongly separated from Phlomis olivieri. In addition, Phlomis bruguieri displayed a close relationship with other members. High flavonoid variations were also detected in Phlomis olivieri, Phlomis anisodonta and Phlomis persica. It was proved that morphometric analysis was consistent with flavonoid results. Finally, both flavonoid markers and morphological characters such as leaf form, leaf base form, calyx teeth form, and calyx and stamen indumentum are valuable in classification of Phlomis species.


Flavonoid Phlomis Diversity Morphology Iran 



This project was supported by the Research Deputy of Shahrekord University. We are grateful to financial affairs in Shahrekord University (ID number: 94GDR1M1987). Moreover, we acknowledge the scientific contribution of M. Shahrokh and R. Eftekharifar.


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Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of ShahrekordShahrekordIran

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