Progress in Additive Manufacturing

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 423–430 | Cite as

Statistical analysis of spatter velocity with high-speed stereovision in laser powder bed fusion

  • Christopher BarrettEmail author
  • Carolyn Carradero
  • Evan Harris
  • Kirk Rogers
  • Eric MacDonald
  • Brett Conner
Full Research Article


As unprecedented design freedom is realized through additive manufacturing and simultaneously as the diversity of materials improves to include high-performance metals, aerospace and biomedical applications demand improved quality control measures. In the context of additive manufacturing, new opportunities for in situ monitoring are now possible with a qualify-as-you-go layer-by-layer methodology. In this study, a pair of low-cost, high-speed cameras recording the selective laser melting of maraging steel was synchronized to measure stereoscopic features of the resulting spatter. Through epipolar geometry, accurate measurements were calculated of the age, speed and direction of thousands of spatter events. Statistical analysis was performed focusing on spatter velocity with the driving hypothesis that velocity can be correlated to the weld quality and eventually leveraged in real-time process control. Opportunities, future work, and challenges are discussed.


Direct metal laser sintering Stereovision Spatter Velocity 



We would like to thank the Friedman Endowment for Manufacturing at Youngstown State University. This effort was performed in part through the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining under the America Makes Program entitled “Maturation of Advanced Manufacturing for Low Cost Sustainment (MAMLS)” and is based on research sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory under agreement number FA8650-16-2-5700. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (AVI 23334 kb)
40964_2019_94_MOESM2_ESM.avi (20.8 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (AVI 21341 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Youngstown State UniversityYoungstownUSA
  2. 2.Youngstown Business IncubatorYoungstownUSA

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