Progress in Additive Manufacturing

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 357–370 | Cite as

Integral numerical modeling of the deposition profile of a cold spraying process as an additive manufacturing technology

  • Weijun ZhuEmail author
  • Xiaoyu Zhang
  • Minjuan Zhang
  • Xiaoyong Tian
  • Dichen Li
Full Research Article


Cold spraying is a potential alternative process to the current melting-based strategies of additive manufacturing technology that is expected to improve the mechanical properties significantly. However, the process, applied traditionally for coating rather than fabrication, lacks a method to ensure the manufacturing precision. The deposition profile, the key to this issue, is determined by the properties of the powder jet produced by the nozzle. Although significant efforts have been made to reduce the jet size and experimentally observe the deposition profile, a systematic study is required to gain a deep insight into the mechanism of the deposition profile and thus provide a solid base to optimize the process parameters. To address this issue, in this paper, a method is proposed to characterize the deposition profile quantitatively, and an integral analysis framework is established to connect all the procedures in the process, including gas flow, particle flight, particle impact, and particle deposition. In particular, a rule-based deposition model was developed using the impact physics as the foundation and the powder jet as the input. The structure of the powder jet, obtained from CFD analysis, was studied in detail to reveal the key factors and their distributions. In addition to aerodynamic drags, collision and reflection restrictions by the nozzle wall were found to largely contribute to the forming of the powder jet. The deposition profile obtained in the typical condition was characterized quantitatively, and the possible reason behind the inferior manufacturing precisions was uncovered. Moreover, the overlapping deposition was studied, revealing that adjacent depositions were uncoupled in the sense of dimensional profile. The influence of the injection size on the deposition profile was investigated and it was found that it is difficult to achieve both the manufacturing resolution and precision by adjusting this particular process parameter.


Cold spraying Additive manufacturing Powder jet Process modeling Morphology Manufacturing precision 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, P. R. China (Grant no. 51505457), National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant no. 2017-VII-0008), Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (Grant no. 2018ZDXM-GY-059), the Open Fund of State key Laboratory of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, P. R. China (Grant no. SKLMS2016013), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, P. R. China.


  1. 1.
    Coddet P, Verdy C, Coddet C, Lecouturier F, Debray F (2013) Mechanical properties of cold spray deposited NARloy-Z copper alloy. Surf Coat Technol 232:652–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frazier WE (2014) Metal additive manufacturing: a review. J Mater Eng Perform 236):1917–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grigoriev S, Okunkova A, Sova A, Bertrand P, Smurov I (2015) Cold spraying: from process fundamentals towards advanced applications. Surf Coat Technol 268:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang GS, Gu DM, Li XB, Xing LK (2014) Effect of the compressed layer on final impacting velocity of submicron size particles in cold spraying by computational methods. J Comput Theor Nanosci 11(3):840–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Inc. A (2001) ANSYS fluent 6.5 theroy guide. ANSYS Inc., CanonburgGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee K-S, Hwang T-H, Kim S-H, Kim SH, Lee D (2013) Numerical simulations on aerodynamic focusing of particles in a wide size range of 30 nm–10 µm. Aerosol Sci Technol 47(9):1001–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li S, Muddle B, Jahedi M, Soria J (2012) A numerical investigation of the cold spray process using underexpanded and overexpanded jets. J Therm Spray Technol 21(1):108–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu P, Ziemann PJ, Kittelson DB, McMurry PH (1995) Generating particle beams of controlled dimensions and divergence: I. Theory of particle motion in aerodynamic lenses and nozzle expansions. Aerosol Sci Technol 22(3):293–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lupoi R, O’Neill W (2011) Powder stream characteristics in cold spray nozzles. Surf Coat Technol 206(6):1069–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meyer M, Lupoi R (2015) An analysis of the particulate flow in cold spray nozzles. Mech Sci 6(2):127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pattison J, Celotto S, Morgan R, Bray M, O’Neill W (2007) Cold gas dynamic manufacturing: a non-thermal approach to freeform fabrication. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47(3–4):627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Samareh B, Dolatabadi A (2007) A three-dimensional analysis of the cold spray process: the effects of substrate location and shape. J Therm Spray Technol 16(5–6):634–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmidt T, Assadi H, Gaertner F, Richter H, Stoltenhoff T, Kreye H, Klassen T (2009) From particle acceleration to impact and bonding in cold spraying. J Therm Spray Technol 18(5–6):794–808Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schmidt T, Gartner F, Assadi H, Kreye H (2006) Development of a generalized parameter window for cold spray deposition. Acta Mater 54(3):729–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seber GAF, Wild CJ (2003) Nonlinear regression. Wiley-Interscience, HobokenzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sebesta CJ (2012) Modeling the effect of particle diameter and density on dispersion in an axisymmetric turbulent jet. In: Mechanical engineering. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, BlacksburgGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sova A, Doubenskaia M, Grigoriev S, Okunkova A, Smurov I (2013) Parameters of the gas-powder supersonic jet in cold spraying using a mask. J Therm Spray Technol 22(4):551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sova A, Klinkov S, Kosarev V, Ryashin N, Smurov I (2013) Preliminary study on deposition of aluminium and copper powders by cold spray micronozzle using helium. Surf Coat Technol 220(0):98–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Suo XK, Liu TK, Li WY, Suo QL, Planche MP, Liao HL (2013) Numerical study on the effect of nozzle dimension on particle distribution in cold spraying. Surf Coat Technol 220:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tabbara H, Gu S, McCartney DG, Price TS, Shipway PH (2011) Study on process optimization of cold gas spraying. J Therm Spray Technol 20(3):608–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winnicki M, Malachowska A, Ambroziak A (2014) Taguchi optimization of the thickness of a coating deposited by LPCS. Arch Civil Mech Eng 14(4):561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wu JW, Fang HY, Yoon S, Kim H, Lee C (2005) Measurement of particle velocity and characterization of deposition in aluminum alloy kinetic spraying process. Appl Surf Sci 252(5):1368–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yildirim B, Muftu S, Gouldstone A (2011) Modeling of high velocity impact of spherical particles. Wear 270(9–10):703–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yin S, Liu Q, Liao HL, Wang XF (2014) Effect of injection pressure on particle acceleration, dispersion and deposition in cold spray. Comput Mater Sci 90:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu M, Li WY, Wang FF, Suo XK, Liao HL (2013) Effect of particle and substrate preheating on particle deformation behavior in cold spraying. Surf Coat Technol 220:174–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Manufacturing Systems EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center of High-End Manufacturing EquipmentXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations