Advertisement

Parametric Investigation of Squeeze Casting Process on the Microstructure Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of A390 Aluminum Alloy

  • Seyed Abbas Hassasi
  • Majid AbbasiEmail author
  • Seyed Jamal Hosseinipour
Article
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Effects of squeeze casting (SQC) parameters, including squeezing pressure, superheats of liquid metal and die preheating temperature on microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of A390 aluminum alloy, were evaluated using L9 design based on Taguchi method. Squeeze casting was performed by a 25-ton hydraulic press, and all of the parameters were evaluated at 3 different levels: the squeezing pressure was at 60, 90 and 120 MPa, the superheat of the liquid metal was at 50, 100 and 150 °C and the die preheating temperature was at 200, 250 and 300 °C. The microstructure characterization was also performed using optical microscopy image analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile and Brinell test methods were applied for measuring ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and hardness. The results showed that the SQC process modified cast microstructure and improved mechanical properties of the alloy. In addition, the variations of the SQC parameters, specially the squeezing pressure, have significant effects on the size and volume fractions of the primary silicon, eutectic cells and the mechanical properties. According to the results, increase in squeezing pressure from 60 to 120 MPa within the tested range leads to primary silicon area decrease by 48% and silicon eutectic decrease by 44.4%; however, applied pressure did not have any significant effects on morphology of phases. On the other hand, superheating over 100 °C and die preheating at 200 °C had significant effects on the final result. It is clearly observed that rising pressure to 90 MPa consequently increases the tensile strength, elongation and hardness. But increasing the pressure to over 90 MPa did not have any significant effects on the final result.

Keywords

squeeze casing process parametric investigation A390 aluminum alloy microstructure mechanical properties 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    M. Ghomashchi, A. Vikhrov, Squeeze casting: an overview. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 101, 1–9 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.J.S. Challadurai, R. Arthanari, N. Nithyanandam, N. Nisaanthakumar, Investigation of mechanical properties and dry sliding wear behaviour of squeeze cast LM6 aluminium alloy reinforced with copper coated short steel fibers. Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 71, 813–822 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Krishna, K.T. Bilkey, R.D. Pehlke, Estimation of interfacial heat transfer coefficient in indirect squeeze casting. Trans. Am. Foundry Soc. 109, 1–9 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Frgs, ASM handbook, properties and selection: nonferrous alloys and special purpose materials, vol. 2, 10th edn. (ASM International, Russell Township, 1990)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.R. Vijayaram, S. Sulaiman, A.M.S. Hamouda, M.H.M. Ahmad, Fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites by squeeze casting technology. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 178, 34–38 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.J.S. Challadurai, R. Arthanari, A.N. Thangaraj, H. Sekar, Dry sliding wear characterization of squeeze cast LM13/Cu composite using response surface methodology. Overseas Foundry 14, 525–533 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.J.S. Chelladurai, R. Selvarajan, T.P. Ravichandran, S.K. Ravi, S.R.Ch. Petchimuthu, R. Arthanari, Optimization of dry sliding wear parameters of squeeze cast AA336 aluminium alloy: copper-coated steel wire-reinforced composites by response surface methodology. Int. J. Metalcast. 1–13 (2018)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.J.S. Challadurai, R. Arthanari, Effect of stir cast process parameters on wear behaviour of copper coated short steel fibers reinforced LM13 aluminium alloy composites. Mater. Res. Express 5, 1–22 (2018)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Li, L. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Shi, B. Yu, Effect of squeeze casting on microstructure and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-xSi alloys. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 33, 404–410 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.J. Yang, The effect of casting temperature on the properties of squeeze cast aluminium and zinc alloys. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 140, 391–396 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Senthil, K.S. Amirthagadeswaran, Optimization of squeeze casting parameters for non symmetrical AC2A aluminium alloy castings through Taguchi method. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 26, 1141–1147 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Pratheesh, A. Kanjirathinkal, M.A. Joseph, Study on the effects of squeeze pressure on mechanical properties and wear characteristics of near-eutectic Al–Si–Cu–Mg–Ni piston alloy with variable Cu content. Int. J. Metalcast. 11, 831–842 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Vijian, V.P. Arunachalam, Optimization of squeeze cast parameters of LM6 aluminium alloy for surface roughness using Taguchi method. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 180, 161–166 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.P. Hong, H.F. Shen, S.M. Lee, Prevention of macrodefects in squeeze casting of an Al-7 Wt Pct Si alloy. Metall. Mater. Trans. 31, 297–305 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Maleki, B. Niroumand, A. Shafyei, Effects of squeeze casting parameters on density, macrostructure and hardness of LM13 alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 428, 135–140 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Wang, Q. Ma, W. Meng, Zh Han, Experimental study on the heat transfer behavior and contact pressure at the casting-mold interface in squeeze casting of aluminum alloy. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 112, 1032–1043 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Ramesh, Effect of mould materials on the mould-metal interfacial thermal resistance in squeeze casting. in AFS Transactions, 110th Metalcasting Congress (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 6th edn. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Standard, Transportation Officials. ASTM 10-01 Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials. Am. Soc. Test. Mater. 1–9 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    ASTM, Standard test methods of tension testing wrought and cast aluminum and magnesium alloys products. ASTM B557–10 02, 1–15 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Ye, An overview of the development of Al–Si-alloy based material for engine applications. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 12, 288–297 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. Gajdzik, Crystallization and structure of cast A390.0 alloy with melt overheating temperature. Metalurgica 51, 321–324 (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.G. Guana, Z.Y. Zhaoa, Y.D. Lib, T.J. Chenb, S.X. Xuc, P.X. Qi, Microstructure and properties of squeeze cast A356 alloy processed with a vibrating slope. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 229, 514–519 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Hekmat-Ardakan, F. Ajersch, Thermodynamic evaluation of hypereutectic Al–Si (A390) alloy with addition of Mg. Acta Mater. 58, 3422–3428 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.T.A. El-khair, Microstructure characterization and tensile properties of squeeze-cast AlSiMg alloys. Mater. Lett. 59, 894–900 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.D. Lee, Effects of microporosity on tensile properties of A356 aluminum alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 464, 249–254 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.O. Aweda, M.B. Adeyemi, Experimental determination of heat transfer coefficients during squeeze casting of aluminium. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209, 1477–1483 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Linder, M. Axelsson, H. Nilsson, The influence of porosity on the fatigue life for sand and permanent mould cast aluminium. Int. J. Fatigue 28, 1752–1758 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.G. Kaufman, E.L. Rooy, Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (ASM International, Russell Township, 2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Kim, J. Hwang, H. Kwon, Effect of squeeze cast process parameters on fluidity of Al-Si alloy. Trans. Am. Foundry Soc. 114, 14–21 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Foundry Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Materials and Industrial EngineeringBabol Noshirvani University of TechnologyBabolIran

Personalised recommendations