Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1711–1721 | Cite as

Public health effects due to insufficient groundwater quality monitoring in Igando and Agbowo regions in Nigeria: A review

  • Samson Oluwafemi Abioye
  • Edangodage Duminda Pradeep PereraEmail author
Original Article


This paper emphasizes the need for monitoring groundwater resources by analyzing the health implications of inadequate monitoring. It highlights the importance of groundwater quality monitoring in Nigeria—a country where population dependence on groundwater is 60%. The effects of Soluos dumpsite leachate in Igando, Lagos–Nigeria, and septic tank seepages in Agbowo, Ibadan–Nigeria on groundwater quality are analyzed. All samples used in this study appeared to be microbially contaminated. This is linked to too close distances [< 50 ft (15.24 m) the United States Environmental Protection Agency recommendation] between septic tanks and groundwater wells, as well as non-engineered dumpsites used for waste disposal. This shows that groundwater within the study area is unsafe for drinking purposes. Even with the clayey soil stratigraphy of the study area which is believed to influence the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater, high concentrations of lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) were seen in some locations around the dumpsite. The study points to the inherent cost for individuals and government due to insufficient groundwater quality which could have been otherwise avoided through groundwater monitoring and proper waste management. This review accentuates the need for improved water quality towards achieving SDG 6.1 (universal and equitable access to safe drinking water) and SDG 3 (Good health and well-being) in Nigeria.


Groundwater monitoring Microbial contamination Water-borne diseases Water quality Nigeria 



We appreciate the Water Without Borders (WWB) team of United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) and McMaster University. Particularly to Dr. Sarah Dickson and Dr. Lisa Guppy, their contribution towards this paper is unquantifiable. We also acknowledge the valuable comments and suggestions given by the Director of UNU-INWEH, Dr. Vladimir Smakhtin. Moreover, authors are grateful to the reviewers and journal editors for their constructive comments and helpful suggestions, which resulted in this improved manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.United Nations Institute of Water, Environment and HealthHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

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