Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1651–1663 | Cite as

Examining water conservation behaviors and attitudes: evidence from the city of Ada, Oklahoma, USA

  • Erick O. AnangaEmail author
  • Terrie A. Becerra
  • Charles Peaden
  • Christine Pappas
Original Article


The study reported here provides the most current empirical data on household water conservation strategies and behaviors in the city of Ada, Oklahoma. Survey data was collected in the summer of 2017. The results indicate that households in Ada employ several strategies to conserve water including checking and repairing water leakages around the house (90%), washing dishes by hand (83%), lowering the water level on washing machines and using the dishwasher with full loads (72%). Additionally, the following factors are identified as having the greatest influence on a household water conservation drive; drought (92%), pollution of fresh water, and substantial increases in water bills (91%). In contrast to previous works, it is notable that our findings on pollution of freshwater sources as a water conservation motive are unique to this study. Regarding efficacy, the results indicate that households in Ada are aware of the need to conserve water and generally have a positive attitude towards water conservation (90%). These findings are remarkable for several reasons. Most importantly, they provide recent data on a collection of conservation strategies employed by household in a rural American town. We conclude the study by suggesting policy options that should be considered by policymakers when developing strategies to incentivize effective water conservation practices. These include; encouraging water efficiencies regarding the use of household appliances, the use of pricing, and the application of restrictive local ordinances.


Water conservation Rural American city Policy Management 



This study was funded by the OKA institute through East Central University Department of Politics, Law and Society. We thank Student Skyler Riddle with data collection efforts.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erick O. Ananga
    • 1
    Email author
  • Terrie A. Becerra
    • 1
  • Charles Peaden
    • 1
  • Christine Pappas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Politics, Law and SocietyEast Central UniversityAdaUSA

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