Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1627–1639 | Cite as

Optimization study of adsorption parameters for removal of Cr(VI) using Magnolia leaf biomass by response surface methodology

  • Naba Kumar MondalEmail author
  • Angela Samanta
  • Palas RoyEmail author
  • Biswajit Das
Original Article


The removal of chromium (Cr) using waste biomass is one of the most important issues throughout the world. In the present study, Magnolia leaf, a forest waste, is employed as novel and available adsorbent to abate Cr(VI) from simulated solution through batch study. The effects of operating variables on biosorption were analyzed using a multi-step response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum biosorption conditions were determined at the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 40.0 mg L−1, pH of 2.0, contact time 45.0 min and dose of 0.5 g. At optimum conditions, the biosorption capacity of Magnolia leaf for Cr(VI) was found to be 3.96 mg g−1 that reflects the removal of 98.8%. The obtained data matched with the pseudo-second-order rate (R2 = 0.987) expression and fitted the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.999) very well. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° for the Cr(VI) biosorption were calculated at six different temperatures. The surface characteristics and the existence of chromium of the biomass, before and after biosorption, were studied through scanning electron micrographs–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The present results indicate that Magnolia leaf is a suitable low-cost bio-material to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.


Magnolia leaf Biosorption Cr(VI) removal Isotherm Optimization Response surface methodology 



Analysis of variance


Box–Behnken design


Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid


Fourier transform infrared


Magnolia leaf powder


Response surface methodology


Scanning electron micrographs



P. Roy is grateful to UGC(ERO), Government of India, for financial support under Minor Research Project scheme [F.No.PSW–010/014-15(ERO)]. The authors take the opportunity to express deep sense of gratitude to editor and anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments, which helped us to enrich the research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declared that they have no conflict of interest to publish this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Environmental ScienceThe University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological ScienceBITS Pilani KK Birla University (Goa Campus)GoaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, B.N. Mahavidyalaya (Itachuna)The University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Kalna College (Kalna)The University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia

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