Sustainable Water Resources Management

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1615–1625 | Cite as

Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in Kankara, northwestern Nigeria

  • C. O. AbusuEmail author
Original Article


Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater sampled hand-dug wells around Kankara was undertaken with the aim of determining its geochemical facies and suitability of water for drinking. A total of ten (10) hand-dug wells were sampled randomly within Kankara and its environs during the peak of dry season with two set of samples collected for major cations and anions. The water samples were analyzed for major cations (magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium) and anions (bicarbonate, sulfate, nitrate and chloride) using atomic absorption spectrometry, flame photometry emission and titration method at the Department of Soil Science, Faculty Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Results obtained were subjected to qualitative evaluation and multivariate statistical analysis to delineate the hydrochemical facies of groundwater within the study area. Descriptive statistical analysis and comparison with World Health Organisation (WHO), Gutenberg, 468–475, (2011) standards were employed to assess water drinking suitability. Water–rock interaction was observed to be the dominant influence of groundwater chemistry. Ca–Mg, Na–K–HCO3 were found to be the dominant water facies in the study area reflecting the biotite granite, granite gneiss and migmatite geology of the study area. The assessed hand-dug wells were found to be chemically in line with WHO standard for safe drinking water except for iron II in which local remediation by aeration for oxidation to iron III was recommended. Water in the area is thus suitable for drinking.


Groundwater Hydrogeochemical characterization Suitability 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria

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