Youth Anti-Racist Engagement: Conceptualization, Development, and Validation of an Anti-Racism Action Scale
- 187 Downloads
Scholarship on youth engagement indicates that adolescents address social issues of public concern, but it is not clear how youth challenge racism. This gap in the literature stems from indirect conceptualizations and a lack of quantitative measurement of adolescents’ acts to oppose racism. Correspondingly, this study presents the validation of a measure of youth anti-racism action. Study 1 describes the youth participatory approach used in the development of the Anti-Racism Action Scale and presents the results from an exploratory factor analysis that examined the measure’s initial factor structure and reliability. The factor structure of the 22-item measure was explored with a diverse sample of adolescents (Mage = 16.00, SD = 1.18; 61.7% girls, Black/African American [29.3%], Asian/South Asian [21.1%], White/European American [24.4%], Arab/Middle-Eastern [17.5%], Latino/Hispanic [4.5%], and Multiracial [3.3%]) enrolled in a race dialogue program (n = 249). The results indicated the measure consisted of three subscales: Interpersonal Action, Communal Action, and Political Change Action. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with an independent, nationally representative sample of youth (n = 384) from diverse backgrounds (Mage = 17.00, SD = 1.29, 51.0% girls, White/European American [26.1%], Black/African American [25.6%], Latino/Hispanic [19.3%], Asian/Pacific Islander [13.6%], Multiracial [9.9%], Native American [5.2%] and “other” [0.3%]). The results confirmed a three-factor model that resulted in a 16-item measure. Furthermore, tests of convergent validity tests were pursued between the Anti-Racism Action Scale and the Critical Consciousness Scale, a widely used measure of youths’ awareness of the structural causes of various forms of oppression, sense of sociopolitical agency, and social action. This study suggests that youth engagement in anti-racism is multidimensional and that notion of adolescent social action are more diverse than represented in the literature.
KeywordsSociopolitical development Social action Critical consciousness Anti-racism Scale development
The authors would like to thank Dr. Matthew A. Diemer for his thoughtful feedback on an early draft of the manuscript.
AA conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript; JB participated in the study design, conducted the statistical analysis, interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript; KRS lead the measurement development, participated in the study design, and provided feedback on manuscript drafts. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors report none.
- Bañales, J., Marchand, A. D., Skinner, O. D., Anyiwo, N., Rowley, S. J., & Kurtz-Costes, B. (2019). Black adolescents’ critical reflection development: Parents’ racial socialization and attributions about race achievement gaps. Journal of Research on Adolescence. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bañales, J., Mathews, C. J., Hayat, N., Anyiwo, A., & Diemer, M. A. (2019). Latinx and Black young adults’ pathways to civic/political engagement. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000271.
- Cammarota, J., & Fine, M. (2008). Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- DeVellis, R. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Fisher, R., & Checkoway, B. (2011). Intergroup dialogue facilitation for youth empowerment and community change. In K. E. Maxwell, B. Nagda, & M. Thompson (Eds.), Facilitating intergroup dialogues: Bridging differences, catalyzing change (pp. 133–146). Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
- Flanagan, C. A., Syvertsen, A. K., & Stout, M. D. (2007). Civic measurement models: Tapping adolescents’ civic engagement. CIRCLE Working Paper 55, 1–40.Google Scholar
- Flores, S. K. (2008). Youth participatory evaluation: Strategies for engaging young people. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing.Google Scholar
- Fox, M., Mediratta, K., Ruglis, J., Stoudt, B., Shah, S., & Fine, M. (2010). Critical youth engagement: Participatory action research and organizing. In L. R. Sherrod, J. Torney-Purta & C. A. Flanagan (Eds.), Handbook of research on civic engagement in youth (pp. 621–649). Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (Rev. edn.). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Furr, R. M., & Bacharach, V. R. (2013). Psychometrics: An introduction (2nd edn.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Ginwright, S. (2011). Hope, healing, and care. Liberal Education, 97, 34–39.Google Scholar
- Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gonzalez, J., & Trickett, E. J. (2014). Collaborative measurement development as a tool in CBPR: Measurement development and adaptation within the cultures of communities. American journal of community psychology, 54, 112–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-014-9655-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hope, E. C., Skoog, A. B., & Jagers, R. J. (2014). “It’ll never be the White kids, it’ll always be us”: Black high school students’ evolving critical analysis of racial discrimination and inequity in schools. Journal of Adolescent Research, 30, 83–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558414550688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IBM Corp. (2017). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Armonk: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: Methodology in the social sciences (3rd edn.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Leff, S. S., Crick, N. R., Angelucci, J., Haye, K., Jawad, A. F., Grossman, M., & Power, T. J. (2006). Social cognition in context: Validating a cartoon-based attributional measure for urban girls. Child Development, 77, 1351–1358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00939.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
- Noguera, P., Cammarota, J., & Ginwright, S. (2006). Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America’s youth. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Rapa, L. J. (2016). Fostering marginalized youths’ academic achievement and critical consciousness through a values-affirmation intervention. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education. East Lansing: Michigan State University.Google Scholar
- Seider, S., Kelly, L., Clark, S., Jennett, P., El-Amin, A., Graves, D., et al. (2018). Fostering the sociopolitical development of African American and Latinx adolescents to analyze and challenge racial and economic inequality. Youth and Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X18767783(Online Release).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (2001). Improving intergroup relations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Stovall, D. (2006). From hunger strike to high school: Youth development, social justice and school formation. In S. Ginwright, P. Noguera & J. Cammarota (Eds.), Beyond resistance! youth resistance and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America’s youth. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Watts, R. J., Diemer, M. A., & Voight, A. M. (2011). Critical consciousness: Current status and future directions. In C. A. Flanagan & B. D. Christens (Eds.), Youth civic development: Work at the cutting edge (pp. 43–57). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar