Advertisement

Does Ethnic Identification Moderate the Impact of Depression on Obesity in Young People? Results of a Systematic Scoping Review

  • Annalijn I. Conklin
  • Alexander C. T. Tam
  • Sherry X. R. Guo
  • Christopher G. Richardson
Narrative Review

Abstract

Adolescent depression can increase obesity risk, and both health outcomes show strong ethnic and gender disparities. Strong ethnic identification may provide health-related psychological and social resources that could potentially moderate the impact of depression on adolescent obesity. This study reviews peer-reviewed empirical evidence on the combined effect of ethnic identification and depression on obesity in adolescents. A systematic literature search was conducted in Web of Science, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO, CINHAL, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations (inception to July 2017) for empirical studies reporting on original research or reviews in either English or French. Data were extracted using a standardized evidence table with a priori determined headings, table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. Fourteen of the 231 potential studies were eligible for full-text screening, however no studies met minimum inclusion criteria; thus, no data were synthesized and assessed. Excluded studies were described nonetheless: studies had small populations, were of varying duration, and reported mixed results. A large research gap exists on the role of ethnic identification as a potential moderator of the depression-obesity relationship in young people, with current work studying its role in the obesity-depression direction despite the known bi-directionality. Future obesity interventions in ethnically diverse populations would benefit from studies aimed at deciphering whether and how ethnic identification mitigates or amplifies the impact of depression on obesity in young people.

Keywords

Ethnic identification Obesity risk Depression Effect modification Systematic review 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the constructive feedback provided by anonymous reviewers to help improve this manuscript.

Authors’ Contributions

AIC and CGR conceived the study. AIC designed the study, informed study execution, interpreted data, and led drafting of the manuscript. ACTT and SXRG conducted the search, extracted the data, and supported interpretation and writing of the manuscript. AIC, CGR, SXRG and ACTT revised the drafted paper critically for important intellectual content. All authors gave final approval of the version to be published.

Funding

There was no specific funding for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interests.

References

  1. Ames, M. E., & Wintre, M. G. (2016). Growth mixture modeling of adolescent body mass index development: Longitudinal patterns of internalizing symptoms and physical activity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26(4), 889–901.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, S. E., Cohen, P., Naumova, E. N., & Must, A. (2006). Association of depression and anxiety disorders with weight change in a prospective community-based study of children followed up into adulthood. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(3), 285–291.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.3.285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, S. E., Murray, D. M., Johnson, C. C., Elder, J. P., Lytle, L., Jobe, J. B., Saksvig, B. I., & Stevens J. (2011). Obesity and depressed mood associations differ by race/ethnicity in adolescent girls. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity: IJPO : An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 6(1), 69–78.  https://doi.org/10.3109/17477161003728477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bardone, A. M., Terrie, E., Moffitt, A., Caspi, N., Dickson, W. R., Stanton, & Silva, P. A. (1998). Adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(6), 594–601.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199806000-00009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisaga, K., Whitaker, A., Davies, M., Chuang, S., Feldman, J., & Timothy Walsh, B. (2005). Eating disorder and depressive symptoms in urban high school girls from different ethnic backgrounds. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26(4), 257–266.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200508000-00001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blakemore, S. J., & Mills, K. L. (2014). Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing?. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 187–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Calamaro, C. J., Park, S., Mason, T. B. A., Marcus, C. L., Weaver, T. E., Pack, A., & Ratcliffe, S. J. (2010). Shortened sleep duration does not predict obesity in adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(4), 559–566.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00840.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan, S.-M. (2012). Factors of overweight/obesity in taiwanese adolescents. Arizona State University. https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/97648/content//tmp/package-8V8Mij/Chan_asu_0010E_12279.pdf. Accessed 23 April 2018.
  9. Chiriboga, D. E., Ma, Y., Li, W., Olendzki, B. C., Pagoto, S. L., Philip, A., Merriam, C. E., Matthews, J. R., Hebert, & Ockene, I. S. (2008). Gender differences in predictors of body weight and body weight change in healthy adults. Obesity, 16(1), 137–145.  https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Conklin, A. I., Maguire, E. R., & Monsivais, P. (2013). Economic Determinants of diet in older adults: Systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67, 721–727.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Corona, M. (2015). The association between depression and overweight/obesity among ethnic minority youth. University of Washington. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/handle/1773/26124/Corona_washington_0250E_13522.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed 23 April 2018.
  12. Dave, D. M., Tennant, J., & Colman, G. J. (2011) Isolating the effect of major depression on obesity: Role of selection bias. Working Paper 17068. National Bureau of Economic Research.  https://doi.org/10.3386/w17068.
  13. Deeks, J. J., Dinnes, J., D’amico, R., Sowden, A. J., Sakarovitch, C., Song, F., Petticrew, M., & Altman, D. G., International Stroke Trial Collaborative Group, and European Carotid Surgery Trial Collaborative Group (2003). Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies. Health Technol Assess, 7(27), 1–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fonseca, H., & Gaspar de Matos, M. (2005). Perception of overweight and obesity among portuguese adolescents: An overview of associated factors. European Journal of Public Health, 15(3), 323–328.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki071.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia-Reid, P., Peterson, C. H., Robert, J., Reid, & Andrew Peterson, N. (2013). The protective effects of sense of community, multigroup ethnic identity, and self-esteem against internalizing problems among dominican youth: Implications for social workers. Social Work in Mental Health, 11(3), 199–222.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2013.774923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Granberg, E. M., Simons, R. L., Frederick, X., Gibbons, & Nieuwsma Melby J. (2008). The relationship between body size and depressed mood: Findings from a sample of african american middle school girls. Youth & Society, 39(3), 294–315.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X07301952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hughes, D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E. P., Deborah, J., Johnson, H.C., Stevenson, & Spicer, P. (2006). Parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices: A review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 747–770.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.747.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hunsberger, M., Mehlig, S. Lehtinen-Jacks,K., Gwozdz, W., Russo, P., Michels, N., Bammann, K., et al. (2016). Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and body mass index in European children: Longitudinal findings from the IDEFICS Study. BMC Public Health, 16, 949.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3626-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Jelassi, M., & Miled, S. B. & Narjes Bellamine Ben Saoud (2015). Obesity determinants: A systematic review. 2015 Third World Conference on Complex Systems, November.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICoCS.2015.7483277.
  20. Juang, L. P., Nguyen, H. H., & Lin, Y. (2006). The ethnic identity, other-group attitudes, and psychosocial functioning of Asian American emerging adults from two contexts. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 542–568.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558406291691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kubzansky, L. D., Mark, S., Gilthorpe, & Goodman E. (2012). A prospective study of psychological distress and weight status in adolescents/young adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 43(2), 219–228.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-011-9323-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee, S. B. (2011). Relationships among body mass index, nutrition, internalizing symptoms, and ethnic identity of cherokee youth attending a Private Native American Secondary School. United States—Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University. http://search.proquest.com/docview/924459440/abstract/961492C41D084610PQ/1.
  23. Lee, C. C. (2003). Empowering young black males–III: A systematic modular training program for black male children & adolescents. Greensboro, NC: ERIC Counseling and Student Services Clearinghouse. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED473749.pdf. Accessed 23 April 2018.Google Scholar
  24. Liechty, J. M., & Lee M.J. (2015). Body size estimation and other psychosocial risk factors for obesity onset among us adolescents: Findings from a longitudinal population level study. International Journal of Obesity; London, 39(4), 601–607.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2014.191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lim, C. S., Marissa, A., Gowey, J., Silverstein, M., Dumont-Driscoll, & Janicke, D. M. (2016). Depressive symptoms, ethnic identity, and health-related quality of life in obese youth. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 41(4), 441–452.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsv014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mannan, M., Mamun, A., Doi, S., & Clavarino A. (2016). Prospective associations between depression and obesity for adolescent males and females—A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. PLOS ONE, 11(6), e0157240.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Mojtabai, R., Olfson, M., & Han, B. (2016). National trends in the prevalence and treatment of depression in adolescents and young adults. Pediatrics, 138(6), e20161878.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1878.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Newman, D. L., Lisa, M., Sontag, & Salvato, R. (2006). Psychosocial aspects of body mass and body image among rural American Indian adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence; New York, 35(2), 265–275.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-9011-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ogden, C. L., Margaret, D., Carroll, H.G., Lawman, C.D., Fryar, D., Kruszon-Moran, B. K., Kit, & Flegal, K. M. (2016). Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014. JAMA, 315(21), 2292–2299.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.6361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2011). Emotional/behavioral difficulties and adolescent obesity: Effect of sex and hispanic origin/race. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 6(5–6), 462–466.  https://doi.org/10.3109/17477166.2011.590207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pine, D. S., Rise, B., Goldstein, S., Wolk, & Weissman, M. M. (2001). The association between childhood depression and adulthood body mass index. Pediatrics, 107(5), 1049–1056.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.5.1049.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Poobalan, A., & Aucott L. (2016). Obesity among young adults in developing countries: A systematic overview. Current Obesity Reports, 5, 2–13.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-016-0187-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Presnell, K., Bearman S.K., & Madeley M.C. (2017). Body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males: Risk and resilience. PsycEXTRA Dataset. Retrieved June 22, 2017 from http://www.academia.edu/6035545/Body_Dissatisfaction_in_Adolescent_Females_and_Males_Risk_and_Resilience.
  34. Statistics Canada. (2015). Overweight and obese youth (self-reported), 2014. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2015001/article/14186-eng.htm. Accessed 27 June 2017.
  35. Statistics Canada. (2017). Depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24. https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2017001/article/14697-eng.htm.
  36. Schünemann, H. J., Oxman, A. D., Vist, G. E., Higgins, J. P. T., Deeks, J. J., & Glasziou, P. & on behalf of the Cochrane Applicability and Recommendations Methods Group (2011). Chapter 12: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. Chapter 12: Interpreting Results and Drawing Conclusions. In Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. Wiley-Blackwell, New York. http://training.cochrane.org/handbook.
  37. Sebastian, C., Burnett, S., & Blakemore, S. J. (2008). Development of the self-concept during adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(11), 441–446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Twells, L. K., Deborah, M., Gregory, J., Reddigan, & Midodzi, W. K. (2014). Current and predicted prevalence of obesity in Canada: A trend analysis. CMAJ Open, 2(1), E18–E26.  https://doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20130016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2017a). Overweight & obesity statistics. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/overweight-obesity.
  40. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2017b). Major depression among adolescents. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/major-depression-among-adolescents.shtml. Accessed 24 June 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annalijn I. Conklin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexander C. T. Tam
    • 3
  • Sherry X. R. Guo
    • 4
  • Christopher G. Richardson
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Collaboration for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), 2405 Wesbrook Mall, Room 4623, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences (CHÉOS), Providence Healthcare Research InstituteSt. Paul’s HospitalVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Faculty of ArtsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Behavioural Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Faculty of ArtsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  5. 5.School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations