Advertisement

Adolescent Research Review

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 321–338 | Cite as

Risk Factors for Dropping out of High School: A Review of Contemporary, International Empirical Research

  • Enrico RipamontiEmail author
Systematic Review
  • 462 Downloads

Abstract

School dropout is still a relevant problem in the US, Canada, and European countries. The factors that determine, or contribute to, this phenomenon are still not clear and, especially in recent years, have been extensively investigated in the US, using large databases. This article presents a review of international literature from an inter-disciplinary perspective, takes a developmental systems theory as a theoretical framework and examines personal, social and contextual risk factors for dropout. Results show that several determinants are associated with dropout, such as truancy, lack of motivation, health, bullying, and living in economically depressed areas. However, at the current state of the art, little is known about how these variables interact and their specific roles in different environments.

Keywords

School dropout Developmental systems theory Risk factors Truancy Motivation Health Bullying 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am very grateful to Frances Anderson, Dario Varin and two anonymous reviewers for the useful suggestions and discussions in this article.

Author contributions

Enrico Ripamonti is associated with the Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, IRCCS, Milan. His research interests are in causal models in Statistics, economics of education and the relation of health and education.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author reports no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Kabbini, N. S. (2001). The dropout process in lifecourse perspective: early risk factors at home et school. Teachers College Records, 103, 760–882.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. M. (2014). In school and out of trouble? The minimum dropout age and juvenile crime. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 96, 318–331.Google Scholar
  3. Apantaku-Olajide, T., James, P. D., & Smyth, B. P. (2014). Association of educational attainment and adolescent substance use disorder in a clinical sample. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 23, 169–176.Google Scholar
  4. Aratani, Y., & Cooper, J. L. (2015). The effects of runaway-homeless episodes on high school dropout. Youth and Society, 47, 173–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Archambault, I., Janosz, M., Morizot, J., & Pagani, L. (2009). Adolescent behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement in school: Relationship to dropout. Journal of School Health, 79, 408–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barro, R. J. (1991). Economic growth in a cross section of countries. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 407–443.Google Scholar
  8. Bask, M., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Burned out to drop out: Exploring the relationship between school burnout and school dropout. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28, 511–528.Google Scholar
  9. Battin-Pearson, S., Newcomb, M. D., Abbott, R. D., Hill, K. G., Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (2000). Predictors of early high school dropout: A test of five theories. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 568–582.Google Scholar
  10. Becker, G. S. (1994). Human capital revisited. In Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education (3rd Edition, pp. 15–28). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  11. Blanden, J., Gregg, P., & Machin, S. (2005). Intergenerational mobility in Europe and North America: A report for the Sutton Trust. London: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics.Google Scholar
  12. Blondal, K. S., & Adalbjarnardottir, S. (2009). Parenting practices and school dropout: A longitudinal study. Adolescence, 44, 729–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boudon, R. (1979). La logique du social. Introduction à l’analyse sociologique. Paris: Hachette.Google Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, P. (1970). La reproduction. Paris: Editions de Minuit.Google Scholar
  15. Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2011). Schooling in capitalist America: Educational reform and the contradictions of economic life (2nd edn.). Chicago: Haymarket Books.Google Scholar
  16. Breen, R. (2004). Social mobility in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brooks-Gunn, J., Cunha, F., Duncan, G., Heckman, J. J., & Sojourner, A. (2006). A reanalysis of the IHDP program. Infant Health and Development Program. Northwestern University.Google Scholar
  18. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2007). America’s youth at 19: school enrollment, training, and employment transitions between ages 18 and 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  19. Byrne, D., McCoy, S., & Watson, D. (2008). The school-leavers survey 2007. Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute and the Department of Education and Science.Google Scholar
  20. Cabus, S. J., & De Witte, K. (2015). Does unauthorized school absenteeism accelerates the dropout decision? Evidence from a Bayesian duration model. Applied Economics Letters, 22, 266–271.Google Scholar
  21. Cabus, S. J., & De Witte, K. (2016). Why do students leave education early? Theory and evidence on high school dropout rates. Journal of Forecasting, 35, 690–702.Google Scholar
  22. Caprara, G. V., Fida, R., Vecchione, M., Del Bove, G., Vecchio, G. M., Barbaranelli, C., & Bandura, A. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in academic continuance and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 525–534.Google Scholar
  23. Carbonaro, W., & Workman, J. (2016). Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students’ friends matter? Social Science Research, 58, 184–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carsley, D., Heath, N. L., Gomez-Garibello, C., & Mills, D. J. (2016). The importance of mindfulness in explaining the relationship between adolescents’ anxiety and dropout Intentions. School Mental Health, 9, 1–9.Google Scholar
  25. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Reproductive Health: Teen Pregnancy, http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/. Accessed 26 Apr 2016.
  26. Chau, K., Kabuth, B., Causin-Brice, O., Delacour, Y., Richoux-Picard, C., & Verdin, M., et al. (2016). Associations between school difficulties and health-related problems and risky behaviours in early adolescence: A cross-sectional study in middle-school adolescents in France. Psychiatry Research, 244, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of teasing and bullying predicts high school dropout rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 138–149.Google Scholar
  28. Cortiella, C. (2013). Diplomas at risk: A critical look at the graduation rate of students with learning disabilities. New York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities.Google Scholar
  29. Crispin, L. M. (2017). Extracurricular participation, “at-risk” status, and the high school dropout decision. Education Finance and Policy, 12, 166–199.Google Scholar
  30. Croninger, R., & Lee, V. (2001). Social capital and dropping out of school: Benefits to at-risk students of teachers’ support and guidance. Teachers College Record, 103, 548–581.Google Scholar
  31. Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (2008). The scientific study of child and adolescent development: Important issues in the field today. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Child and adolescent development. An advanced course (pp. 3–15). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Daniel, S. S., Walsh, A. K., Goldston, D. B., Arnold, E. M., Reboussin, B. A., & Wood, F. B. (2006). Suicidality, school dropout, and reading problems among adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 507–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. De Ridder, K. A., Pape, K., Johnsen, R., Westin, S., Holmen, T. L., & Bjørngaard, J. H. (2012). School dropout: a major public health challenge: a 10-year prospective study on medical and non-medical social insurance benefits in young adulthood, the Young-HUNT 1 Study (Norway). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66, 995–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. De Witte, K., Cabus, S., Thyssen, G., Groot, W., & van den Brink, H. M. (2013). A critical review of the literature on school dropout. Educational Research Review, 10, 13–28.Google Scholar
  35. De Witte, K., & Csillag, M. (2014). Does anybody notice? On the impact of improved truancy reporting on school dropout. Education Economics, 22, 549–568.Google Scholar
  36. Deming, D. (2017). The growing importance of social skills in the labor market. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, published online June 6, 2017.Google Scholar
  37. Department of Education and Science (2008). Retention rates of pupils in second level schools 1999 cohort. Dublin: Department of Education and Science.Google Scholar
  38. Dougherty, D., & Sharkey, J. (2017). Reconnecting Youth: Promoting emotional competence and social support to improve academic achievement. Children and Youth Services Review, 74, 28–34.Google Scholar
  39. Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Self-discipline gives girls the edge: Gender in self-discipline, grades, and achievement test scores. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 198–208.Google Scholar
  40. Dvorsky, M. R., & Langberg, J. M. (2016). A review of factors that promote resilience in youth with ADHD and ADHD symptoms. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19, 368–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ehrenreich, H., Nahapetyan, L., Orpinas, P., & Song, X. (2015). Marijuana use from middle to high school: co-occurring problem behaviors, teacher-rated academic skills and sixth-grade predictors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 1929–1940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eicher, V., Staerklé, C., & Clémence, A. (2014). I want to quit education: A longitudinal study of stress and optimism as predictors of school dropout intention. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 1021–1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eide, E. R., & Showalter, M. H. (2001). The effect of grade retention on educational and labour market outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 20, 563–576.Google Scholar
  44. Englund, M. M., Egeland, B., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Exceptions to high school dropout predictions in a low-income sample: Do adults make a difference? Journal of Social Issues, 64, 77–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fagan, J., & Pabon, E. (1990). Contributions of delinquency and substance use to school dropouts among inner city youths. Youth and Society, 21, 306–355.Google Scholar
  46. Fan, W., & Wolters, C. A. (2014). School motivation and high school dropout: The mediating role of educational expectation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 22–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Farahati, F., Marcotte, D. E., & Wilcox-Gök, V. (2003). The effects of parents’ psychiatric disorders on children’s high school dropout. Economics of Education Review, 22, 167–178.Google Scholar
  48. Fergusson, D. M., McLeod, G. F., & Horwood, L. J. (2015). Leaving school without qualifications and mental health problems to age 30. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 469–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fernández-Suárez, A., Herrero, J., Pérez, B., Juarros-Basterretxea, J., & Rodríguez-Díaz, F. J. (2016). Risk factors for school dropout in a sample of juvenile offenders. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.Google Scholar
  50. Fields, L., & Prinz, R. J. (1997). Coping and adjustment during childhood and adolescence. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 937–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fischer, M., Barkley, R. A., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). Young adult follow-up of hyperactive children: self-reported psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and the role of childhood conduct problems and teen CD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 463–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fitzpatrick, C., Archambault, I., Janosz, M., & Pagani, L. S. (2015). Early childhood working memory forecasts high school dropout risk. Intelligence, 53, 160–165.Google Scholar
  53. Foley, K., Gallipoli, G., & Green, D. A. (2014). Ability, parental valuation of education, and the high school dropout decision. Journal of Human Resources, 49, 906–944.Google Scholar
  54. Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Fortin, L., Marcotte, D., Potvin, P., Royer, A., & Joly, J. (2006). Typology of students at risk of dropping out of school: Description by personal, family and school factors. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21, 363–383.Google Scholar
  56. Fried, R., Petty, C., Faraone, S. V., Hyder, L. L., Day, H., & Biederman, J. (2016). Is ADHD a risk factor for high school dropout? A controlled study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20, 383–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Garnier, H. E., Stein, J. A., & Jacobs, J. K. (1997). The process of dropping out of high school: a 19-year perspective. American Educational Research Journal, 34, 395–419.Google Scholar
  58. Glaser, D. J. (2009). Teenage dropouts and drug use: Does the specification of peer group structure matter? Economics of Education Review, 28, 497–504.Google Scholar
  59. Gottlieb, G., Wahlsten, D., & Lickliter, R. (2006). The significance of biology for human development: Adevelopmental psychobiological systems perspective. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) and R. M. Lerner (Eds.), (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th edn., pp. 210–257). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Haelermans, C., & De Witte, K. (2015). Does residential mobility improve educational outcomes? Evidence from the Netherlands. Social Science Research, 52, 351–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hanushek, E. A. (2011). The economic value of higher teacher quality. Economics of Education Review, 30, 466–479.Google Scholar
  62. Harding, D. J. (2003). Counterfactual models of neighborhood effects: the effect of neighborhood poverty on dropping out and teenage pregnancy. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 676–719.Google Scholar
  63. Hawkins, R. L., Jaccard, J., & Needle, E. (2013). Nonacademic factors associated with dropping out of high school: Adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 4, 58–75.Google Scholar
  64. Heckman, J. J. (2013). Giving kids a fair chance. Cambrigde (MA): The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  65. Heckman, J. J., Humphries, J. E., LaFontaine, P. A., & Rodriguez, P. L. (2012). Taking the easy way out: How the GED testing program induces students to drop out. Journal of Labor Economics, 30, 495–520.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Heckman, J. J., & LaFontaine, P. A. (2010). The American high school graduation rate: Trends and levels. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92, 244–262.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). The effect of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 411–482.Google Scholar
  68. Heers, M., van Klaveren, C., Groot, W., & van den Brink, H. M. (2014). The impact of community schools on student dropout in pre-vocational education. Economics of Education Review, 41, 105–119.Google Scholar
  69. Hirschfield, P. (2009). Another way out: The impact of juvenile arrests on high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 82, 368–393.Google Scholar
  70. Hoffman, S. D., & Maynard, R. A. (2008). Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy. Washington: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  71. Iachini, A. L., Rogelberg, S., Terry, J. D., & Lutz, A. (2016). Examining the feasibility and acceptability of a motivational interviewing early intervention program to prevent high school dropout. Children and Schools, 38, 209–217.Google Scholar
  72. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) (2017). Noi Italia. 100 Statistiche per capire il Paese. http://www.istat.it. Accessed 1 Oct 2017.
  73. Janosz, M., Archambault, I., Morizot, J., & Pagani, L. S. (2008). School engagement trajectories and their differential predictive relations to dropout. Journal of Social Issues, 64, 21–40.Google Scholar
  74. Jessor, R. (1991). Risk behavior in adolescence: A psychosocial framework for understanding and action. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 597–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jia, Y., Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2016). Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 31, 289–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jimerson, S., Egeland, B., Sroufe, L. A., & Carlson, B. (2000). A prospective longitudinal study of high school dropouts: examining multiple predictors across development. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 525–549.Google Scholar
  77. Jimerson, S. R., Anderson, G. E., & Whipple, A. D. (2002). Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the relation between grade retention and dropping out of high school. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 441–457.Google Scholar
  78. Kokko, K., Tremblay, R. E., Lacourse, E., Nagin, D. S., & Vitaro, F. (2006). Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression in middle childhood: Links to adolescent school dropout and physical violence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 403–428.Google Scholar
  79. Kurdek, L. A., & Sinclair, R. J. (2000). Psychological, family, and peer predictors of academic outcomes in first-through fifth-grade children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 449–457.Google Scholar
  80. Lamote, C., Speybroeck, S., Van Den Noortgate, W., & van Damme, J. (2013). Different pathways towards dropout: the role of engagement in early school leaving. Oxford Review of Education, 39, 739–760.Google Scholar
  81. Landis, R. N., & Reschly, A. L. (2013). Reexamining gifted underachievement and dropout through the lens of student engagement. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 36, 220–249.Google Scholar
  82. Langberg, J. M., & Becker, S. P. (2012). Does long-term medication use improve the academic outcomes of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15, 215–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee, J. C., & Staff, J. (2007). When work matters: The varying impact of work intensity on high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 80, 158–178.Google Scholar
  84. Lee, V. E., & Burkam, D. T. (2003). Dropping out of high school: the role of school organization and structure. American Educational Research Journal, 40, 353–393.Google Scholar
  85. Lerner, R. M. (2006). Developmental science, developmental systems, and contemporary theories of human development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) and R. M. Lerner (Vol. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th edn., pp. 1–17). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Longobardi, C., Prino, L. E., Marengo, D., & Settanni, M. (2016). Student-teacher relationships as a protective factor for school adjustment during the transition from middle to high school. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.Google Scholar
  87. Lundahl, L., Lindblad, M., Lovén, A., Mårald, G., & Svedberg, G. (2017). No particular way to go: Careers of young adults lacking upper secondary qualifications. Journal of Education and Work, 30, 39–52.Google Scholar
  88. Mahoney, J. L. (2014). School extracurricular activity participation and early school dropout: A mixed-method study of the role of peer social networks. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 4, 143–154.Google Scholar
  89. Marcotte, D. E. (2013). High school dropout and teenage childbearing. Economics of Education Review, 34, 258–268.Google Scholar
  90. McCoy, S., & Smyth, E. (2005). At work in school: Part-time employment among second-level students. Economic and Social Research Institute. Dublin: Liffey Press.Google Scholar
  91. Meier, M. H., Hill, M. L., Small, P. J., & Luthar, S. S. (2015). Associations of adolescent cannabis use with academic performance and mental health: a longitudinal study of upper middle class youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 156, 207–212.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Brody, D., Fisher, P. W., Bourdon, K., & Koretz, D. S. (2010). Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders among US children in the 2001–2004 NHANES. Pediatrics, 125, 75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mocetti, S. (2012). Educational choices and the selection process: before and after compulsory schooling. Education Economics, 20, 189–209.Google Scholar
  94. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G. & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151, 264–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Moonie, S. A., Sterling, D. A., Figgs, L., & Castro, M. (2006). Asthma status and severity affects missed school days. Journal of School Health, 76, 18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nairz-Wirth, E., & Feldmann, K. (2017). Teachers’ views on the impact of teacher–student relationships on school dropout: a Bourdieusian analysis of misrecognition. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 25, 121–136.Google Scholar
  97. OCSE (2016). Education at glance. 2016.Google Scholar
  98. OECD (2015). OECD skills strategy diagnostic report: Spain 2015. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  99. Orpinas, P., Lacy, B., Nahapetyan, L., Dube, S. R., & Song, X. (2016). Cigarette smoking trajectories from sixth to twelfth grade: associated substance use and high school dropout. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 18, 156–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pagani, L. S., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., McDuff, P., Japel, C., & Larose, S. (2008). When predictions fail: The case of unexpected pathways toward high school dropout. Journal of Social Issues, 64, 175–194.Google Scholar
  101. Parr, A. K., & Bonitz, V. S. (2015). Role of family background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs in predicting high school dropout. Journal of Educational Research, 108, 504–514.Google Scholar
  102. Perreira, K. M., Harris, K. M., & Lee, D. (2006). Making it in America: High school completion by immigrant and native youth. Demography, 43, 511–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pettit, B., & Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69, 151–169.Google Scholar
  104. Plasman, J. S., & Gottfried, M. A. (2016). Applied STEM coursework, high school dropout rates, and students with learning disabilities. Educational policy, Online first: p. 0895904816673738.Google Scholar
  105. Pong, S. L., & Ju, D. B. (2000). The effects of change in family structures and income on dropping out of middle and high school. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 147–149.Google Scholar
  106. Porche, M. V., Fortuna, L. R., Lin, J., & Alegria, M. (2011). Childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders as correlates of school dropout in a national sample of young adults. Child Development, 82, 982–998.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Quiroga, C. V., Janosz, M., Bisset, S., & Morin, A. J. (2013). Early adolescent depression symptoms and school dropout: Mediating processes involving self-reported academic competence and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 552–561.Google Scholar
  108. Ramsdal, G., Bergvik, S., & Wynn, R. (2015). Parent–child attachment, academic performance and the process of high-school dropout: a narrative review. Attachment and Human Development, 17, 522–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Renzulli, J. S., & Park, S. (2000). Gifted dropouts: The who and the why. Gifted Child Quarterly, 44, 261–271.Google Scholar
  110. Ripamonti, E., & Barberis, S. (2017). The effect of cultural capital on high school dropout: An investigation in the Italian provinces. Social Indicators Research. doi: 10.1007/s11205-017-1754-6.Google Scholar
  111. Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73, 417–458.Google Scholar
  112. Robison, S., Jaggers, J., Rhodes, J., Blackmon, B. J., & Church, W. (2017). Correlates of educational success: Predictors of school dropout and graduation for urban students in the Deep South. Children and Youth Services Review, 73, 37–46.Google Scholar
  113. Roche, K. M., Ahmed, S., & Blum, R. W. (2008). Enduring consequences of parenting for risk behaviors from adolescence into early adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, 66, 2023–2034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rocque, M., Jennings, W. G., Piquero, A. R., Ozkan, T., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). The importance of school attendance: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development on the Life-Course Effects of Truancy. Crime and Delinquency, 63, 592–612.Google Scholar
  115. Roebuck, M. C., French, M. T., & Dennis, M. L. (2004). Adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Economics of Education Review, 23, 133–141.Google Scholar
  116. Rumberger, R. W. (1983). Dropping out of high school: The influence of race, sex, and family background. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 199–220.Google Scholar
  117. Rumberger, R. W. (1987). High school dropouts: A review of issues and evidence. Review of Educational Research, 57, 101–121.Google Scholar
  118. Rumberger, R. W. (2004). Why students drop out of school. In G. Orfield (Ed.), Dropouts in America: Confronting the graduation rate crisis (pp. 131–155). Cambridge (MA): Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  119. Rumberger, R. W., & Palardy, G. J. (2005). Test scores, dropout rates, and transfer rates as alternative indicators of high school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 42, 3–42.Google Scholar
  120. Rumberger, R. W., & Thomas, S. L. (2000). The distribution of dropout and turnover rates among urban and suburban high schools. Sociology of Education, 73, 39–67.Google Scholar
  121. Rutter, M. (1993). Resilience: Some conceptual considerations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 14, 626–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sable, J., Gaviola, N., & Hoffman, L. (2007). Numbers and Rates of Public High School Dropouts: School Year 2004-05. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  123. Sasser, T. R., Kalvin, C. B., & Bierman, K. L. (2016). Developmental trajectories of clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from grade 3 through 12 in a high-risk sample: Predictors and outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, 207–219.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Sedgh, G., Finer, L. B., Bankole, A., Eilers, M. A., & Singh, S. (2015). Adolescent pregnancy, birth and abortion rates across countries: levels and recent trends. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56, 223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Shanahan, M. J., & Flaberry, B. P. (2001). Dynamic patterns of time use in adolescence. Child Development, 72, 385–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Smyth, E., & McCoy, S. (2009). Investing in Education: Combating Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: ESRI.Google Scholar
  127. Stetser, M. C., & Stillwell, R. (2014). Public high school four-year on time graduation rates and event dropout rates: School years 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  128. Stiby, A. I., Hickman, M., Munafò, M. R., Heron, J., Yip, V. L., & Macleod, J. (2015). Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 110, 658–668.Google Scholar
  129. Svetaz, M. V., Ireland, M., & Blum, R. (2000). Adolescents with learning disabilities: Risk and protective factors associated with emotional well-being: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 340–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Swanson, C. B. (2004). Sketching a Portrait of Public High School Graduation: Who Graduates? Who Doesn’t? In G. Orfield (Ed.), Dropouts in America: confronting the graduation rate crisis (pp. 13–40). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  131. Sweeten, G., Bushway, S. D., & Paternoster, R. (2009). Does dropping out of school mean dropping into delinquency? Criminology, 47, 47–91.Google Scholar
  132. Sznitman, S. R., Reisel, L., & Khurana, A. (2017). Socioeconomic background and high school completion: Mediation by health and moderation by national context. Journal of Adolescence, 56, 118–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Toles, T., Schulz, E. M., & Rice, W. K. (1986). A study of variation in dropout rates attributable to effects of high school. Metropolitan Education, 2, 30–38.Google Scholar
  134. Traag, T., & Van der Velden, R. K. (2008). Early school-leaving in the Netherlands. The role of student-, family- and school- factors for early school leaving in lower secondary education. Maastricht: Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market.Google Scholar
  135. Trampush, J. W., Miller, C. J., Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (2009). The impact of childhood ADHD on dropping out of high school in urban adolescents/young adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13, 127–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. U.S. Department of Education (2014). High school longitudinal study of 2009. Washington: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  137. Vauhkonen, T., Kallio, J., Kauppinen, T. M., & Erola, J. (2017). Intergenerational accumulation of social disadvantages across generations in young adulthood. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 48, 42–52.Google Scholar
  138. Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Larose, S., & Trembaly, R. E. (2005). Kindergarten disruptive behaviors, protective factors, and educational achievement by early adulthood. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 617–629.Google Scholar
  139. Wang, M. T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85, 722–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Warren, J. R. (2002). Reconsidering the relationship between student employment and academic outcomes: a new theory and better data. Youth and Society, 33, 366–393.Google Scholar
  141. Warren, J. R., & Lee, J. C. (2003). The impact of adolescent employment on high school. dropout: differences by individual and labour market characteristics. Social Science and Research, 32, 98–128.Google Scholar
  142. Weick, K. E. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 1–19.Google Scholar
  143. Willms, J. D. (2002). Vulnerable children: Findings from Canada’s national longitudinal survey of children and youth. Edmonton AB: University of Alberta Press.Google Scholar
  144. Wood, L., Kiperman, S., Esch, R. C., Leroux, A. J., & Truscott, S. D. (2017). Predicting dropout using student-and school-level factors: An ecological perspective. School Psychology Quarterly, 32, 35–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Don Carlo Gnocchi FoundationIstituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico [IRCCS]MilanItaly

Personalised recommendations