Pedestrian Facilities and Perceived Pedestrian Level of Service (PLOS): A Case Study of Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh

  • Khatun E. ZannatEmail author
  • Debasish Roy Raja
  • Mohammed Sarfaraz Gani Adnan
Original Article


The promotion of active transport (a type of sustainable transportation) such as walking is a form of response against environmental pollution engendering from transport sector. Pedestrian level of service (PLOS) is a measurement tool to evaluate the degree of pedestrian accommodation on roadway to provide a comfortable and safe walking environment. The roadway characteristics-based model to measure PLOS has been widely applied since this approach is conceived as being transferable to different contexts. We present a comprehensive framework to measure the influence of pedestrian facilities on perceived PLOS qualitatively and quantitatively. We modeled triangular relationships among pedestrian facilities, perceived roadway conditions (accessibility, safety, comfort, and attractiveness), and perceived PLOS to identify pedestrian facilities, related to footpath, carriageway, and transit, influencing perceived PLOS. We developed these models for a case study of Chittagong Metropolitan Area in Bangladesh. Poor condition of pedestrian facilities in the region resulted in PLOS B as the highest tier of perceived PLOS. Findings of this study showed that accessibility and attractiveness influenced the perceived PLOS for footpath, carriageway, and transit, whereas safety is an important roadway condition for carriageway and transit facilities. We further measured the influence of 22 selected parameters of pedestrian facilities on roadway conditions and perceived PLOS. We concluded that achieving a better perceived PLOS is dependent on the availability, maintenance, and planning of different pedestrian facilities, as improper placement and poor condition of such facilities increased the probability that a lower level PLOS will be perceived.


Active transport Walking Pedestrian facilities Pedestrian level of service Roadway condition Chittagong 



We are pleased to express our gratitude to the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP) of Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET) for providing logistic support to carry out this study. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of our manuscript and insightful comments and suggestions.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban and Regional PlanningChittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET)ChittagongBangladesh
  2. 2.Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the EnvironmentUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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