Hugoniot Measurements Utilizing In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Radiation

  • D. J. MillerEmail author
  • R. S. Crum
  • M. A. Homel
  • D. E. Eakins
  • D. J. Chapman
  • J. C. Z. Jonsson
  • M. E. Rutherford
  • E. M. Escuariza
  • L. C. Smith
  • E. B. Herbold
  • J. Lind
  • M. C. Akin


Pressure–density relationships derived from the experimentally obtained shock and particle velocities are critical to define a material’s equation of state (EOS). Typically, impact experiments coupled with velocimetry are used to map a material’s Hugoniot. Limitations such as sample geometry and varying indices of refraction may prevent proper characterization using traditional techniques such as photon doppler velocimetry (PDV) or velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Here, traditional Hugoniot measurements using PDV are compared to dynamic x-ray imaging encompassing two different sample geometries on the gas gun platform. Through each of these methods an experimentally derived Hugoniot is determined for a previously uncharacterized polymeric material, Somos Watershed XC11122, that is used 3D printed stereolithography parts. A Usup relationship was determined to be Us = 2.93 us + 1.73 mm/μs through traditional PDV. Slope and sound speed values determined from x-ray imaging methods varied 11% from PDV measurements. Each method yielded a Hugoniot with densities similar to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The similarity shows the viability of such analyses for dynamic properties and Hugoniot data. The performance and analysis of both PDV and dynamic x-ray measurements are laid out in this work. Comparing PDV and x-ray imaging highlights distinct advantages and disadvantages among each method. PDV provides less uncertainty for velocity measurements, however x-ray imaging is more spatially resolved allowing for shock steadiness observations of value when studying heterogeneous materials. Additionally, x-ray imaging provides greater insight into the shape and heterogeneity of the shock front as well as uniaxial strain state (1D zone) assumptions.


Hugoniot X-ray imaging Polymer PDV Equation of state Synchrotron Gas gun Shock compression 



Dorothy Miller gratefully acknowledges the NNSA Graduate Fellowship and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for their support with regards to this opportunity. Many thanks to Ryan Hurley, Ricky Chau, and Elida White for their help with sample/experiment preparation and fruitful discussions. Many thanks to Michael Rutherford, John Jonsson, Liam Smith and Emilio Escauriza for experimental help and operations. The experiments were performed on beamline ID-19 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France under the Long-Term Proposal MI-1252 (DE). We are grateful to Margie Olbinado and Alexander Rack at the ESRF for providing assistance in using beamline 19. The authors are thankful for continued support from DSTL (DE), First Light Fusion (EE), EPSRC (DJC, MR, LS, JJ), and AWE (MR, LS, JJ). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by LLNL Laboratory Directed R&D Program (tracking no. 16-ERD-010).


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Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Miller
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • R. S. Crum
    • 1
  • M. A. Homel
    • 1
  • D. E. Eakins
    • 3
  • D. J. Chapman
    • 3
  • J. C. Z. Jonsson
    • 3
  • M. E. Rutherford
    • 3
  • E. M. Escuariza
    • 3
  • L. C. Smith
    • 3
  • E. B. Herbold
    • 1
  • J. Lind
    • 1
  • M. C. Akin
    • 1
  1. 1.Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear EngineeringUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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