Analyses of orthotospovirus populations and dispersion under different environmental conditions in Brazil and in the Dominican Republic
Orthotospoviruses (genus Orthotospovirus, family Tospoviridae) are amongst the most devastating plant viruses worldwide, causing severe damage to many economically important vegetable crops, such as tomato and sweet pepper. Monitoring virus populations is an important step for estimating virus damage and epidemiology, and gaining insights into the adaptation processes undergone by orthotospoviruses. Here, we studied the orthotospovirus populations infecting vegetable crops in Brazil and the Dominican Republic, including species diversity, genome comparison and phylogenetic analyses. Comparisons of virus populations showed that in Brazil, which is considered a center of orthotospovirus diversity, groundnut rinspot virus (GRSV) is prevalent, infecting 41% of the plants, whereas tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) were present in 4% and 9% of the samples, respectively. In the Dominican Republic, which can be considered an environment with low orthotospovirus diversity, 55% of the samples were infected with TSWV, 11% showed TCSV infection and no GRSV was detected. The occurrence of mixed infection was low in Brazil, at only 5%, but no mixed infection was detected in the Dominican Republic. The low rates of mixed infections may prevent the emergence of genomes resulting from reassortment. Indeed, no reassortant viruses were detected in either country, except for TCSV, recently proposed as representing a reassortant orthotospovirus species.
KeywordsOrthotospoviruses Diversity Evolution Ecology
This work was supported by a grant from the Fondo Nacional de Innovación y Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDOCYT) from the Dominican Republic and grants from CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), Capes (Conselho de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) and FAP-DF (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal) from Brazil.
R.T.M and R.O.R. designed and supervised the study. R. T. M., M.M.S.d.A., R.R., X.C. and A.S.d.O. performed sample preparation and executed the experimental work. M.M.S.d.A., R.T.M. and F.L.M. performed data analyses. R.T.M and R.O.R wrote the manuscript. All authors revised the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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