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Tropical Plant Pathology

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 151–161 | Cite as

Early sowing and harvesting as effective measures to reduce stalk borer injury, Fusarium verticillioides incidence and associated fumonisin production in maize

  • Richard Raphael Madege
  • Sofie LandschootEmail author
  • Martin Kimanya
  • Bendantukuka Tiisekwa
  • Bruno De Meulenaer
  • Boris Bekaert
  • Kris Audenaert
  • Geert Haesaert
Original Article

Abstract

Maize cultivation in Tanzania is hampered by the presence of maize stalk borer (Busseola fusca) and Fusarium verticillioides, causing ear, kernel and stalk damage. Furthermore, accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins deteriorates grain quality. Optimized agronomic practices remain the primary line of defense against pests and diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of hybrid, sowing and harvest date on injuries due to maize stalk borer, Fusarium verticillioides symptoms and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in Tanzania. The analyses of the data collected during two growing seasons (2013 and 2014) showed early sowing and early harvesting as important measures for minimizing these problems. Although the impact of hybrid was not always significant, the early maturing hybrid STUKA M1 was consistently less susceptible compared to the hybrid STAHA. Correlation analysis revealed that stalk borer injuries, Fusarium symptoms and fumonisin levels were positively associated. The associations between yield and stalk borer injuries, Fusarium symptoms and fumonisin levels were negative, indicating that besides the mycotoxin issues, the insect and fungal pathogen also contribute to yield losses.

Keywords

Zea mays Busseola fusca Fusarium Good Agricultural practices mycotoxins 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the research funding provided by VLIR (ZEIN2011PR388). The technical support given during field and laboratory activities at Sokoine University of Agriculture (Tanzania), Tanzania Drugs Authority (Tanzania) and University of Ghent (Belgium) is highly appreciated.

Supplementary material

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Fig. A1

Effect of harvest date (H1, H2, H3), sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on Fusarium stalk (a), ear (b) and kernel (c) rot during 2013. (PNG 40 kb)

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Fig. A2

Effect of harvest date (H1, H2, H3), sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on Fusarium stalk (a), ear (b) and kernel (c) rot during 2014. (PNG 42 kb)

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Fig. A3

Effect of sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on biomass of Fusarium verticillioides in maize kernels (pg DNA per g maize kernels) across two seasons (2013(a), 2014(b)). (PNG 52 kb)

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Fig. A4

Effect of harvest date (H1, H2, H3), sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on total fumonisin (FB) content during 2013. (PNG 32 kb)

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Fig A5

Effect of harvest date (H1, H2, H3), sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on total fumonisin (FB) content during 2014. (PNG 36 kb)

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Fig A6

Effect of harvest date (H1, H2, H3), sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on maize yield (ton/ha) during 2013. (PNG 36 kb)

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Fig. A7

Effect of harvest date (H1, H2, H3), sowing date (S1, S2, S3, S4), and maize hybrid (STAHA, STUKA M1) on maize yield (ton/ha) during 2014. (PNG 35 kb)

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Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, College of AgricultureSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  2. 2.Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, College of AgricultureSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  3. 3.Department of Data Analysis and Mathematical Modelling, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  5. 5.School of Life SciencesThe Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania
  6. 6.Department of Food Chemistry and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

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