Advertisement

Tropical Plant Pathology

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 193–197 | Cite as

Identification and characterization of Ditylenchus spp. populations from garlic in New York State, USA

  • Sarah J. Pethybridge
  • Adrienne Gorny
  • Traci Hoogland
  • Lisa Jones
  • Frank Hay
  • Christine Smart
  • George Abawi
Short Communication

Abstract

Ditylenchus dipsaci is an important pathogen of onion and garlic and causes reductions in bulb quality. Between 2012 and 2014, 345 garlic bulb samples were tested for Ditylenchus spp. The average incidence of Ditylenchus spp. was 14.1 %. Twenty-five individuals from 31 Ditylenchus spp. populations were selected for identification by morphology, species-specific PCR, and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. Thirty populations were identified by morphology and species-specific PCR as D. dipsaci. Sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA found the populations were 99.7 to 100 % similar to each other, and 99.3 to 100 % similar to other D. dipsaci reference isolates from France, and California, USA. One population was identified as Ditylenchus sp. and was 97 % similar within the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region to D. destructor. This information will be useful for the monitoring of future pest outbreaks in garlic in New York State, USA, and the effectiveness of management recommendations.

Keywords

Ditylenchus D. dipsaci D. destructor Garlic Stem and bulb nematode 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop program through the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets (C200756), and the United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA) Hatch project NYG-625424 managed by The New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, NY, USA. Thanks also to Christy Hoepting, Robert Hadad, and Crystal Stewart, Cornell Cooperative Extension, NY, USA for coordinating sampling, and to Kundan Moktan, Cornell University for initial processing of samples.

References

  1. Abawi GS, Moktan K, Stewart C, Hoepting C, Hadad R (2011) Occurrence and damage of bloat nematode to garlic in New York. J Nematol 43:223Google Scholar
  2. Abawi GS, Moktan K, Stewart C, Hadad R, Hoepting C (2012) Current status of the bloat nematode on garlic in New York. J Nematol 44:447Google Scholar
  3. Abawi GS, Moktan K, Stewart C, Hadad R, Jones L, Smart CD (2014) Updating the status of the re-emerging and damaging bloat nematode on garlic. (Abstr.). Phytopathology 105(Suppl 1):S1.5Google Scholar
  4. Barker KR, Sasser JN (1959) Biology and control of the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci. Phytopathology 49:664–670Google Scholar
  5. Dropkin VH (1988) The concept of race in phytonematology. Annu Rev Phytopathol 26:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. EPPO (2008) Ditylenchus destructor and Ditylenchus dipsaci. EPPO Bull 38:363373Google Scholar
  7. Esquibet M, Grenier E, Plantard O, Andaloussi A, Caubel G (2003) DNA polymorphism in the stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci: development of diagnostic markers for normal and giant races. Genome 46:1077–1083CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Godfrey GH, Scott CE (1935) New economic hosts of the stem- and bulb-infesting nematode. Phytopathology 25:1003–1010Google Scholar
  9. Joyce SA, Burnell AM, Powers TO (1994) Characterization of Heterorhabditis isolates by PCR amplification of segments of mtDNA and rDNA genes. J Nematol 26:260–270PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Kable PF, Mai WF (1968) Influence of soil moisture on Pratylenchus penetrans. Nematologica 14:101–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kearse M, Moir R, Wilson A, Stones-Havas S, Cheung M, Sturrock S, Buxton S, Cooper A, Markowitz S, Duran C, Thierer T, Ashton B, Mentjies P, Drummond A (2012) Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28:1647–1649CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Kerkoud M, Esquibet M, Plantard O, Avrillon M, Guimier C, Franck M, Lechappe J, Mathis R (2007) Identification of Ditylenchus species associated with Fabaceae seeds based on a specific polymerase chain reaction of ribosomal DNA-ITS regions. Eur J Plant Pathol 118:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marek M, Zouhar M, Rysanek P, Havranek P (2005) Analysis of ITS sequences of nuclear rDNA and development of a PCR-based assay for the rapid identification of the stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci (Nematodea: Anguinidae) in plant tissues. Helminthologia 42:49–56Google Scholar
  14. Mountain WB (1957) Outbreak of the bulb and stem nematode in Ontario. In: Shoemaker RA, Creelman DW (eds). 37th Annu Rep Can Plant Dis Surv, p 61–62Google Scholar
  15. Newhall AG, Clement RL, Smith ID, Chitwood BG (1939) A survey of the occurrence of the bulb or stem nematode on onions in the state of New York. Plant Dis Rep 23:291–292Google Scholar
  16. Powers TO, Todd TC, Burnell AM, Murray PCB, Flemming CC, Szalanski AL, Adams BA, Harris TS (1997) The rDNA internal transcribed spacer region as a taxonomic marker for nematodes. J Nematol 29:441–450PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Qiao Y, Zaidi M, Badiss A, Hughes B, Celetti MJ, Yu Q (2013) Intra-racial variation of Ditylenchus dipsaci isolated from garlic in Ontario as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Can J Plant Pathol 35:346–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Seinhorst JW (1956) Population studies on stem nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci). Nematologica 1:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stamatakis A (2014) RAxML Version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30:1312–1313CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Steiner G (1931) Two interesting findings of Tylenchus dipsaci, the bulb or stem nematode. Plant Dis Rep 15:92–93Google Scholar
  22. Subbotin SA, Madani M, Krall EL, Sturhan D, Moens M (2003) Identification and phylogenetic relationships within the stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci complex (Tylenchida: Angunidae) as inferred from analysis of the ITS-rDNA sequences. J Nematol 35:365Google Scholar
  23. Subbotin SA, Krall EL, Riley IT, Chizhov VN, Staelens A, De Loose M, Moens M (2004) Evolution of the gall-forming plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida: Anguinidae) and their relationships with hosts as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 30:226–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Subbotin SA, Madani M, Krall E, Sturhan D, Moens M (2005) Molecular diagnosis, taxonomy and phylogeny of the stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci species complex based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer-rDNA. Phytopathology 95:1308–1315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Vovlas N, Troccoli A, Palomares-Rius JE, De-Luca F, Liébanas G, Landa BB, Subbotin SA, Castillo P (2011) Ditylenchus gigas n. sp. parasitizing broad bean: A new stem nematode singled out from the Ditylenchus dipsaci species complex using a polyphasic approach with molecular phylogeny. Plant Pathol 60:735–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vrain TS, Wakarchuk DA, Levesque AC, Hamilton RI (1992) Interspecific rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Xiphenema americanum group. Fund Appl Nematol 563–573Google Scholar
  27. Webster JM (1967) The significance of biological races of Ditylenchus dipsaci and their hybrids. Ann Appl Biol 59:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yu Q, Zaida MA, Hughes B, Celetti M (2012) Discovery of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, infesting garlic in Ontario, Canada. Plant Dis 96:297CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cornell University, School of Integrative Plant Science, Section of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe BiologyCornell UniversityGenevaUSA
  2. 2.The Department of Plant Sciences and Plant PathologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Botany and Plant PathologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations