Advertisement

Size-dependent mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms in Cu/NbMoTaW nanolaminates

  • Yufang Zhao (赵宇芳)
  • Jinyu Zhang (张金钰)Email author
  • Yaqiang Wang (王亚强)
  • Kai Wu (吴凯)
  • Gang Liu (刘刚)Email author
  • Jun Sun (孙军)Email author
Article
  • 112 Downloads

Abstract

High entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted extensive attention due to their excellent properties in harsh environments. Here, we introduced the HEA NbMoTaW into the laminated structure to synthesize the Cu/HEA nanolami-nates (NLs) with equal layer thickness h spanning from 5 to 100 nm, and comparatively investigated the size dependent mechanical properties and plastic deformation. The experimental results demonstrated that the hardness of Cu/HEA NLs increased with decreasing h, and reached a plateau at h ≤ 50 nm, while the strain rate sensitivity m unexpectedly went through a maximum with reducing h. The emergence of maximum m results from a transition from the synergetic effect of crystalline constituents to the competitive effect between crystalline Cu and amorphous-like NbMoTaW. Micro-structural examinations revealed that shear banding caused by the incoherent Cu/HEA interfaces occurred under severe deformation, and the soft Cu layers dominated plastic deformation of Cu/HEA NLs with large h.

Keywords

high-entropy alloys nanolaminated structure interfaces strain rate sensitivity 

Cu/NbMoTaW 纳米叠层材料具有尺寸效应的力 学性能及变形机制

摘要

高熵合金(HEA)由于其在恶劣环境中优异的力学性能引起 了研究者的广泛关注. 我们将高熵合金NbMoTaW引入到纳米叠层 材料中, 制备出等层厚的Cu/HEA纳米多层膜, 综合研究了其具有 尺寸效应的力学性能及变形行为. 实验表明, Cu/HEA纳米多层膜 的硬度随着层厚h的减小而增加, 随后在h≤50 nm的区域到达一个 平台, 而应变速率敏感性出现了一个最大值, 这是由于Cu和HEA两 相对应变速率敏感性的影响从协同转变为竞争. 在层厚较大时, 非 共格界面导致Cu/HEA多层膜在变形后出现了剪切带, 并且软相Cu 层主导变形.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51621063, 51722104, 51625103, 51790482, 51761135031 and 51571157), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0700701 and 2017YFB0702301), the 111 Project 2.0 of China (BP2018008), the International Joint Laboratory for Micro/Nano Manufacturing and Measurement Technologies, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (xzy022019071). Zhang J is grateful for the Fok Ying-Tong Education Foundation (161096), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017T100744) and Shaanxi Province innovative talents promotion Projects (2018KJXX-004). Wu K thanks the support from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M602811). We thank Dr. Guo SW of Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU) and Dr. Li J at the Instrument Analysis Center of XJTU for their great assistance in TEM analysis.

References

  1. 1.
    Yeh JW, Chen SK, Lin SJ, et al. Nanostructured high-entropy alloys with multiple principal elements: Novel alloy design concepts and outcomes. Adv Eng Mater, 2004, 6: 299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cantor B, Chang ITH, Knight P, et al. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2004, 375-377: 213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang Y, Zuo TT, Tang Z, et al. Microstructures and properties of high-entropy alloys. Prog Mater Sci, 2014, 61: 1–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang W, Liaw PK, Zhang Y. Science and technology in high-entropy alloys. Sci China Mater, 2018, 61: 2–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ganji RS, Sai Karthik P, Bhanu Sankara Rao K, et al. Strengthening mechanisms in equiatomic ultrafine grained AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy studied by micro- and nanoindentation methods. Acta Mater, 2017, 125: 58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zou Y, Ma H, Spolenak R. Ultrastrong ductile and stable high-entropy alloys at small scales. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 7748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    He JY, Liu WH, Wang H, et al. Effects of al addition on structural evolution and tensile properties of the FeCoNiCrMn high-entropy alloy system. Acta Mater, 2014, 62: 105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li D, Li C, Feng T, et al. High-entropy Al0.3CoCrFeNi alloy fibers with high tensile strength and ductility at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. Acta Mater, 2017, 123: 285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu J, Guo X, Lin Q, et al. Excellent ductility and serration feature of metastable cocrfeni high-entropy alloy at extremely low temperatures. Sci China Mater, 2019, 62: 853–863Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Juan CC, Tsai MH, Tsai CW, et al. Enhanced mechanical properties of HfMoTaTiZr and HfMoNbTaTiZr refractory high-entropy alloys. Intermetallics, 2015, 62: 76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tsai MH, Yeh JW, Gan JY. Diffusion barrier properties of AlMoNbSiTaTiVZr high-entropy alloy layer between copper and silicon. Thin Solid Films, 2008, 516: 5527–5530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tang Z, Yuan T, Tsai CW, et al. Fatigue behavior of a wrought Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi two-phase high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2015, 99: 247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gludovatz B, Hohenwarter A, Catoor D, et al. A fracture-resistant high-entropy alloy for cryogenic applications. Science, 2014, 345: 1153–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maiti S, Steurer W. Structural-disorder and its effect on mechanical properties in single-phase TaNbHfZr high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2016, 106: 87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schuh B, Mendez-Martin F, Völker B, et al. Mechanical properties, microstructure and thermal stability of a nanocrystalline CoCr-FeMnNi high-entropy alloy after severe plastic deformation. Acta Mater, 2015, 96: 258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fu Z, Chen W, Wen H, et al. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in an fcc structured single-phase nanocrystalline Co25Ni25Fe25Al7.5Cu17.5 high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2016, 107: 59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fan JT, Zhang LJ, Yu PF, et al. A novel high-entropy alloy with a dendrite-composite microstructure and remarkable compression performance. Scripta Mater, 2019, 159: 18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lu K, Lu L, Suresh S. Strengthening materials by engineering coherent internal boundaries at the nanoscale. Science, 2009, 324: 349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ritchie RO. The conflicts between strength and toughness. Nat Mater, 2011, 10: 817–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Misra A, Verdier M, Lu YC, et al. Structure and mechanical properties of Cu-X (X = Nb, Cr, Ni) nanolayered composites. Scripta Mater, 1998, 39: 555–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yan JW, Zhu XF, Yang B, et al. Shear stress-driven refreshing capability of plastic deformation in nanolayered metals. Phys Rev Lett, 2013, 110: 155502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niu JJ, Zhang JY, Liu G, et al. Size-dependent deformation mechanisms and strain-rate sensitivity in nanostructured Cu/X (X=Cr, Zr) multilayer films. Acta Mater, 2012, 60: 3677–3689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beyerlein IJ, Wang J. Interface-driven mechanisms in cubic/non-cubic nanolaminates at different scales. MRS Bull, 2019, 44: 31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beyerlein IJ, Demkowicz MJ, Misra A, et al. Defect-interface interactions. Prog Mater Sci, 2015, 74: 125–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu Y, Bufford D, Wang H, et al. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers. Acta Mater, 2011, 59: 1924–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang JY, Wu K, Zhang LY, et al. Unraveling the correlation between Hall-Petch slope and peak hardness in metallic nanola-minates. Int J Plast, 2017, 96: 120–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Knorr I, Cordero NM, Lilleodden ET, et al. Mechanical behavior of nanoscale Cu/PdSi multilayers. Acta Mater, 2013, 61: 4984–4995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fan Z, Xue S, Wang J, et al. Unusual size dependent strengthening mechanisms of Cu/amorphous CuNb multilayers. Acta Mater, 2016, 120: 327–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu Y, Yang KM, Hay J, et al. The effect of coherent interface on strain-rate sensitivity of highly textured Cu/Ni and Cu/V multilayers. Scripta Mater, 2019, 162: 33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang YQ, Zhang JY, Liang XQ, et al. Size- and constituent-dependent deformation mechanisms and strain rate sensitivity in nanolaminated crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr films. Acta Mater, 2015, 95: 132–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen J, Lu L, Lu K. Hardness and strain rate sensitivity of nano-crystalline cu. Scripta Mater, 2006, 54: 1913–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wei Q, Ramesh KT, Ma E, et al. Plastic flow localization in bulk tungsten with ultrafine microstructure. Appl Phys Lett, 2005, 86: 101907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karimpoor A. High strength nanocrystalline cobalt with high tensile ductility. Scripta Mater, 2003, 49: 651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang JY, Zeng FL, Wu K, et al. Size-dependent plastic deformation characteristics in He-irradiated nanostructured Cu/Mo multilayers: Competition between dislocation-boundary and dislocation-bubble interactions. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2016, 673: 530–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Feng XB, Zhang JY, Wang YQ, et al. Size effects on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline NbMoTaW refractory high entropy alloy thin films. Int J Plast, 2017, 95: 264–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bhattacharyya D, Mara NA, Dickerson P, et al. Transmission electron microscopy study of the deformation behavior of Cu/Nb and Cu/Ni nanoscale multilayers during nanoindentation. J Mater Res, 2011, 24: 1291–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li YP, Zhu XF, Tan J, et al. Comparative investigation of strength and plastic instability in Cu/Au and Cu/Cr multilayers by indentation. J Mater Res, 2009, 24: 728–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wen S, Zong R, Zeng F, et al. Evaluating modulus and hardness enhancement in evaporated Cu/W multilayers. Acta Mater, 2007, 55: 345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wei MZ, Cao ZH, Shi J, et al. Anomalous plastic deformation in nanoscale Cu/Ta multilayers. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2014, 598: 355–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zeng Y, Hunter A, Beyerlein IJ, et al. A phase field dislocation dynamics model for a bicrystal interface system: An investigation into dislocation slip transmission across cube-on-cube interfaces. Int J Plast, 2016, 79: 293–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Subedi S, Beyerlein IJ, LeSar R, et al. Strength of nanoscale metallic multilayers. Scripta Mater, 2018, 145: 132–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Asaro RJ, Suresh S. Mechanistic models for the activation volume and rate sensitivity in metals with nanocrystalline grains and nano-scale twins. Acta Mater, 2005, 53: 3369–3382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Misra A, Hirth JP, Hoagland RG. Length-scale-dependent deformation mechanisms in incoherent metallic multilayered composites. Acta Mater, 2005, 53: 4817–4824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chen Y, Liu Y, Sun C, et al. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in Cu/Fe multilayers. Acta Mater, 2012, 60: 6312–6321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rao SI, Hazzledine PM. Atomistic simulations of dislocation-interface interactions in the Cu-Ni multilayer system. Philos Mag A, 2000, 80: 2011–2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koehler JS. Attempt to design a strong solid. Phys Rev B, 1970, 2: 547–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zou Y, Maiti S, Steurer W, et al. Size-dependent plasticity in an Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 refractory high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2014, 65: 85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang X, Godfrey A, Huang X, et al. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire. Acta Mater, 2011, 59: 3422–3430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kapp MW, Hohenwarter A, Wurster S, et al. Anisotropic deformation characteristics of an ultrafine- and nanolamellar pear-litic steel. Acta Mater, 2016, 106: 239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen W, Zhang J, Cao S, et al. Strong deformation anisotropies of ω-precipitates and strengthening mechanisms in Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy micropillars: Precipitates shearing vs precipitates disordering. Acta Mater, 2016, 117: 68–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Li JCM, Chou YT. The role of dislocations in the flow stress grain size relationships. Metall Materi Trans, 1970, 1: 1145–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Malow TR, Koch CC, Miraglia PQ, et al. Compressive mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Fe investigated with an automated ball indentation technique. Mater Sci Eng: A, 1998, 252: 36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cheng S, Ma E, Wang Y, et al. Tensile properties of in situ consolidated nanocrystalline Cu. Acta Mater, 2005, 53: 1521–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bouaziz O. Strain-hardening of twinning-induced plasticity steels. Scripta Mater, 2012, 66: 982–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fan Z, Liu Y, Xue S, et al. Layer thickness dependent strain rate sensitivity of Cu/amorphous CuNb multilayer. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110: 161905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wei Q, Cheng S, Ramesh KT, et al. Effect of nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain sizes on the strain rate sensitivity and activation volume: fcc versus bcc metals. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2004, 381: 71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dalla Torre FH, Dubach A, Siegrist ME, et al. Negative strain rate sensitivity in bulk metallic glass and its similarities with the dynamic strain aging effect during deformation. Appl Phys Lett, 2006, 89: 091918CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of MaterialsXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations