Disposal Practices and Utilization of Red Mud (Bauxite Residue): A Review in Indian Context and Abroad

  • Suchita RaiEmail author
  • Sneha Bahadure
  • M. J. Chaddha
  • A. Agnihotri
Thematic Section: Bauxite, Alumina, and Aluminum - INCAL 2019
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Bauxite, Alumina, and Aluminum - INCAL 2019


The insoluble product generated during bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as ‘bauxite residue’ or ‘red mud.’ Due to its high alkalinity (pH ranges between 11.50 and 13), its storage and disposal become a major issue. It can cause problems such as contamination of groundwater due to alkali seepage, impacting air quality with alkaline dust which has its effect on plant life, and a large area of land required for its disposal. This paper critically reviews the disposal practices and utilization of bauxite residue in India and abroad. It assesses the data of Indian alumina refineries regarding bauxite residue generation and utilization in the year 2017. The application areas of bauxite residue utilization in building and construction and metal recovery by these refineries have been reported. Other areas of red mud utilization can be in vegetation, pollution control and as catalysts. This paper is an effort with the aim to review the contributions of India and other countries of the world to resolving the problems associated with bauxite residue from the twentieth century onward up to the year 2018.


Bauxite residue Red mud Disposal Utilization 



The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Mines, Government of India, for sponsoring the project.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suchita Rai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sneha Bahadure
    • 1
  • M. J. Chaddha
    • 1
  • A. Agnihotri
    • 1
  1. 1.Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research Development and Design Centre (JNARDDC)NagpurIndia

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