Preparation and Characterization of Mill Scale Industrial Waste Reduced by Biomass-Based Carbon

  • Deni Shidqi KhaerudiniEmail author
  • Ilham Chanif
  • Dita Rama Insiyanda
  • Fredina Destyorini
  • Sagir Alva
  • Agus Pramono
Research Article


Utilizing locally based and renewable biomass resources are challenging. This work aims to understand the role of the utilization of solid byproduct of Indonesian mill scale, formed during the cold rolling process, and abundant local resources of coconut coir wastes. Mill scale has a fairly high total iron content with the dominant phase being hematite, while pure Fe content is insignificant. In this study, we utilized coconut coir-based carbon (CCC) for direct reduction of mill scale via a carbothermic process to enhance its metallic Fe content. The reduction was carried out by mixing mill scale/CCC at 6:1 wt% ratio in high energy milling for 2 min. The mixture was pressed (100 MPa for 1 min) into pellets and sintered at 900 °C for 1 h and 1000 °C for 1 and 2 h under inert gas atmosphere. After cooling, the sintered pellets were crushed into powder and separated from impurities by magnetic separation. The results show that the reduction process is dominated by carbon gasification–diffusion from CCC. The improved metallization and better reducing process was more pronounced at 1000 °C for 2 h than that for 1 h with over 80 wt% being separated into metallic Fe and lesser CO2 trapped within the sample. X-ray diffractometry revealed that the intimate contact of mill scale/CCC was more increased in solid than that in powder state and indicated that the obtained phases are Fe, Fe3O4, and CO2. The presence of CO2 can be expected due to incomplete evacuation within the sample. These results suggest that mill scale/CCC has some promising potential on certain technical-industrial-scale applications, which might enhance their economic value after further research investigation and evaluation.


Industrial waste Mill scale Coconut coir-based carbon Direct reduction Carbothermic 



The authors would like to thank the PT Krakatau Steel company for raw material of mill scale, Pusat Penelitian UMB for partial financial support through Skim Dosen Prima (Project No. 000539) and the Research Center for Physics LIPI for technical and facilities support. Deni S. Khaerudini wishes to appreciatively acknowledge Dr. Muhandis Shiddiq for proofreading the manuscript and for his exceptional patience during its preparation. Deni S. Khaerudini also wishes to thank Dr. Latifa Hanum Lalasari for her help in an XRF test.

Author Contributions

DSK conceived, directed the project, and analyzed the results. IC prepared and pre-treated the raw material, calcined and sintered sample; carried out XRD and SEM/EDS experiments and data analysis. DSK and FD supervised the preparation of mill scale and CCC material as a proper carbon source. DRI carried out CCC material preparation and mass of balance calculations. DSK, SA and AP supervised the XRD and SEM/EDS characterizations. DSK wrote and edited the manuscript (with the help of IC, SA and AP). All the authors discussed the data and contributed in the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for PhysicsIndonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)SerpongIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMercu Buana UniversityJakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgy EngineeringSultan Ageng Tirtayasa UniversityCilegonIndonesia

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