Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 497–509 | Cite as

Cold-Briquetted Iron and Carbon (CBIC): Investigation of the Influence of Environmental Condition on Its Chemical and Physical Properties

  • Pouyan PaknahadEmail author
  • Masoud Askari
  • Seyed Ali Shahahmadi
Research Article


In this study, a comprehensive investigation was carried out on the effects of environmental condition on physical and chemical properties of Cold-Briquetted Iron and Carbon (CBIC), Cold Direct Reduced Iron (CDRI), and Hot-Briquetted Iron (HBI). The results showed that cold briquetting of CDRI decreases its specific surface area by 51%, which has a significant effect on its oxidation resistance and mechanical strength. Microscopic observations revealed that the oxidation products are formed in near-surface porosities during aging, which protects the fresh material underneath from environmental oxidants, resulting in retarding further oxidation. The oxidation behavior of the samples showed that after about 2 months, the metallization degree-loss rate undergoes a big change because of the transition of the oxidation mechanism from reaction-control to diffusion-control condition. Comparing the oxidation behaviors of samples demonstrated that cold briquetting of CDRI with molasses and sodium silicate binders improves its oxidation resistance by 55% and 65%, respectively. The crushing strength of CBIC with sodium silicate binder in the humid medium reached a steady-state condition after 7 days from beginning of aging. But, the crushing strength of CBIC with molasses was significantly affected by the environmental humidity, so that after 7 days its strength decreased.


Cold-briquetted iron and carbon Environmental condition Aging Oxidation resistance 



The authors acknowledge the support of this research provided by the Tadbir Sanat Asia (TSA) Company and the Sahut-Conreur Company

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there are no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Kirschen M, Badr K, Pfeifer H (2011) Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry. Energy 36:6146–6155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dutta SK, Lele AB, Pancholi NK (2004) Studies on direct reduced iron melting in induction furnace. Trans Indian Inst Met 57:467–473Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abel M, Hein M (2008) The use of scrap substitutes like cold/hot DRI and hot metal in electric steelmaking. Arch Metall Mater 53:353–357Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson S H (2002) Educated use of DRI/HBI improves EAF energy efficiency and yield and downstream operating results. In: 7th european electric steelmaking conference, pp 442–446.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trotter D, Varcoe D, Reeves R, Hornby-Anderson S (2002) Use of HBI/DRI for nitrogen control in steel products. In: 60th electric furniture conference, pp 687–702.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kirschen M, Badr K, Cappel J (2009) Chemical energy and bottom stirring systems-cost effective solutions for a better performing EAF. Int J Iron Steel Soc Iran 6:1–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Midrex Technol Incorporation (2018) DRI products and applications. Accessed Apr 2018.
  8. 8.
    Memoli F (2015) Behavior and benefits of high Fe3C-DRI in the EAF. In: Association iron steel technol conference. Accessed May 2015
  9. 9.
    Midrex Technol Incorporation (2018) World direct reduction statistics. Accessed 24 May 2018.
  10. 10.
    Ravenscroft CM, Hunter R, Griscom F (2016) The versatile ore-based metallic (OBM)—Part 2: a guide for maintaining the value of DRI. Midrex Technol Incorporation, CharlotteGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rhodin L (2010) Carriage of direct reduced iron (DRI) by sea—changes to the IMO code of safe practice for solid bulk cargo. Swed Club.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abdelmomen SS (2014) Reoxidation of direct reduced iron in ambient air. Ironmak Steelmak 41:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ravenscroft CM (2016) Increasing HBI capacity for the merchant market. Midrex Technol Incorporation, CharlotteGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hunter R (2018) Hot briquetted iron, steel’s most versatile metallic—part 2. Midrex Technol Incorporation, CharlotteGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tavakoli MR, Askari M, Farahani M, Shahahmadi A (2011) Cold briquetting of sponge iron (CBSI): parameters and effectiveness. Ironmak Steelmak 38:442–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Birks N, Alabi A F (1987) Mechanisms in corrosion induced auto ignition of direct reduced iron. In: 70th steelmak conferenceGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaushik P, Fruehan RJ (2006) Behavior of direct reduced iron and hot briquetted iron in the upper blast furnace shaft: Part II. A model of oxidation. Metall Mater Trans B 73:727–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gray J, Sahajwalla V, Paramguru R (2005) Kinetics and mechanism of corrosion of laboratory hot briquetted iron. Metall Mater Trans B 36:613–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McKay J, Archer R, Sahajwalla V, Young D, Honeyands T (2000) Reoxidation of hot briquetted iron in salt water. Metall Mater Trans B 31:1133–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gray J, Haudhury NS, Sahajwalla V (2002) Characterisation and corrosion of laboratory scale briquettes of reduced iron. Iron Steel Inst Jpn Int 42:826–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bandopadhyay A, Ganguly A, Prasad KK, Sarkar SB, Ray HR (1993) Determination of kinetic parameters for the reoxidation of direct reduced iron under rising temperature conditions. Thermochim Acta 228:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahmad JK (2015) Inhibition of reoxidation of direct reduced iron (DRI) or sponge iron. Int J Mater Sci Appl 4:7–10Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bandopadhyay A, Ganguly A, Gupta KN, Ray HS (1996) Investigations on the anomalous oxidation behaviour of high-carbon gas-based direct reduced iron (DRI). Thermochim Acta 276:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bandopadhyay A, Ganguly A, Prasad KK (1990) Low- and high-temperature reoxidation of direct reduced iron: a relative assessment. React Solids 8:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kamiya K, Tanaka M (1981) Reoxidation of cold and hot pressed briquets made of reduced ore powder. Trans Iron Steel Inst Jpn 21:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Towhidi N (1988) Reoxidation rate of sponge iron pellets, briquettes and iron powder compressed to various compressions in air. Int J Eng 1:111–116Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pietsch W (2002) Agglomeration processes, phenomena, technologies and equipment. Wiely-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang G, Sun Y, Xu Y (2018) Review of briquette binders and briquetting mechanism. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 82:477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Han H, Duan D, Yuan P (2014) Binders and bonding mechanism for RHF briquette made from blast furnace dust. Iron Steel Inst Jpn Int 54:1781–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chevrier V (2018) Direct reduced ironmaking technology: hot briquetting trials of DRI with higher carbon levels. Midrex Technol Incorporation, CharlotteGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pouyan Paknahad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masoud Askari
    • 1
  • Seyed Ali Shahahmadi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Tadbir Sanat Asia CompanyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations