Cure Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Composite as Assessed by DSC, TGA, and DMA Techniques
- 7 Downloads
The current investigation reports the use of a residue from the iron metallurgy namely, “slag” to produce unsaturated polyester composite material-based slag (UPES). The slag has been mechanically treated by crushing and milling prior incorporating in the polymer. The role of the slag as co-curing agent of the polymerization reaction is studied under isothermal and dynamic conditions using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC); consequently, the role of the slag to enhance the thermal stability as well as the heat storage capacity of the UPE is reported. The isothermal cure temperature was varied from 80 to 120 °C, whereas the dynamic scan was run from room temperature to 250 °C at constant heating rate. This allowed us to estimate the degree of cure and cure rate. It has been found that incomplete cure was recorded by DSC for the pristine sample due to vitrification phenomenon. On the other hand, the sample with the slag displayed complete cure at 120 °C indicating that the heat storage capability of the polymer has been improved. The thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a DSC unit. The sample containing slag responded better against thermal stimulation which was related to the mineral nature of the slag and the polar–polar interactions between the slag and the matrix. The interactions were attributed to the switch from hydroxyl–hydroxyl interactions to the formation of hydroxyl–slag (oxide). The interactions between the slag and the UPE resin were inspected using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The response of the samples to dynamic stimulation was evaluated by a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The sample containing slag displayed higher elastic moduli and broader tan (α) indicating better damping.
KeywordsUnsaturated polyester Waste Slag Co-curing agent Heat storage
Ahmad Mousa is pleased to acknowledge the financial support received by to the Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Dresden e.V. for allowing a researcher stay to carry out the current research and to al-Balqa Applied University-Jordan for the sabbatical leave. The authors are also pleased to thank Büfa-Germany for providing the Palatal® P 61-01.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all the authors, the corresponding author declares that there are no conflicts of interest to disclose.
- 1.Andjelkovic D, Culkin A, Loza R (2009) Unsaturated polyester resins derived from renewable resources. Composites & Poltcon, American Composites Manufactures Association, January 15–17, 2009Google Scholar
- 3.Sinha R (2000) Outlines of polymer technology. Prentice-Hall, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- 6.Kuang W, Richardson AA (2007) New amine promoter for low temperature cures of MEKP initiator unsaturated polyester resin systems. Compos Res J 1(4):9–13Google Scholar
- 8.Mohd Nurazzi N, Khalina A, Sapuan SM, Dayang Laila AHAM, Rahmah M, Hanafee Z (2017) A review: fibres, polymer matrices and composites. Pertanika J Sci Technol 25:1085–1102Google Scholar
- 9.Osman EA, Vakhguelt A, Sbarski I, Mutasher S (2012) Curing behavior and tensile properties of unsaturated polyester containing various tyrene concentrations. Malays Polym J 7(2):46–55Google Scholar
- 10.Mousa A, Karger-Kocsis J (2000) Cure characteristics of a vinylester resin as assessed by FTIR and DSC techniques. Polym Polym Compos 8(7):455Google Scholar
- 14.Qiu X, Wirges W, Gerhard R, Ren M, Tefferi M, Cao Y (2016) Presented at the IEEE international conference on high voltage engineering and application (ICHVE), Chengdu, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- 19.Bastiurea M, Rodeanu MS, Andrei G, Dima D, Murarescu M, Ripa M, Circiumaru A (2014) Determination of specific heat of polyester composite with graphene and graphite by differential scanning calorimetry. Tribol Ind 36(4):419–427Google Scholar