Sub-rapid Solidification and Its Related Interfacial Heat-Transfer Behaviors in Strip Casting Process

  • Chenyang Zhu
  • Wanlin WangEmail author
  • Cheng Lu
Thematic Section: Sustainable Iron and Steelmaking
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Sustainable Iron and Steelmaking


Sub-rapid solidification and its related interfacial heat-transfer behaviors of molten steel during the process of strip casting are very important, as the total solidification time is less than 0.2 s, and the heat transfer would directly determine the surface defects and the final quality of cast strips during initial solidification of molten steel. In this article, four main topics, including the main research techniques for the study of strip casting technology, the effect of deposited films on heat transfer, the effect of coating on heat transfer, and the steel’s sub-rapid solidification microstructure are reviewed with the purpose to explore the intrinsic mechanism of the complex sub-rapid solidification process and its related interfacial heat-transfer behaviors. The results summarized here can provide guidelines for the optimization of the strip casting process.


Sub-rapid solidification Interfacial heat transfer Strip casting Deposited films Microstructure 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51661130154, U1760202), the Newton Advanced Fellowship (Grant No. NA150320), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Central South University (Grant No. 2018zzts018).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Nolli P (2007) Initial solidification phenomena: factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting. PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon UniversityGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Netto PGQ, Tavares RP, Isac M, Guthrie RIL (2001) A technique for the evaluation of instantaneous heat fluxes for the horizontal strip casting of aluminum alloys. ISIJ Int 41:1340–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dai YT, Xu ZS, Luo ZP, Han K, Zhai QJ, Zheng HX (2018) Phase formation kinetics, hardness and magnetocaloric effect of sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during isothermal annealing. J Magn Magn Mater 454:356–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang W, Yu Y, Fang Y, Li JG (2011) Determination of interfacial heat flux of stainless steel solidification on copper substrate during the first 0.2s. J Shanghai Jiaotong Uni (Sci) 16:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hosseini SR, Sheikholeslami M, Ghasemian M, Ganji DD (2018) Nanofluid heat transfer analysis in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) under the effect of magnetic field by means of KKL model. Powder Technol 324:36–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sheikholeslami M, Ganji DD, Javed MY, Ellahi R (2015) Effect of thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamics nanofluid flow and heat transfer by means of two phase model. J Magn Magn Mater 374:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strezov L, Herbertson J (1998) Experimental studies of interfacial heat transfer and initial solidification pertinent to strip casting. ISIJ Int 38:959–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strezov L, Herbertson J, Belton GR (2000) Mechanisms of initial melt/substrate heat transfer pertinent to strip casting. Metall Mater Trans B 31:1023–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xiong ZP, Saleh AA, Kostryzhev AG, Pereloma EV (2017) Strain-induced ferrite formation and its effect on mechanical properties of a dual phase steel produced using laboratory simulated strip casting. J Alloys Compd 721:291–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiong ZP, Kostryzhev AG, Stanford NE, Pereloma EV (2015) Microstructures and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced by laboratory simulated strip casting. Mater Design 88:537–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xiong ZP, Kostryzhev AG, Stanford NE, Pereloma EV (2016) Effect of deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced via strip casting simulation. Mater Sci Eng A 651:291–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xiong ZP, Saleh AA, Marceau RKW, Taylor AS, Stanford NE, Kostryzhev AG, Pereloma EV (2017) Site-specific atomic-scale characterisation of retained austenite in a strip cast TRIP steel. Acta Mater 134:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xiong ZP, Kostryzhev AG, Saleh AA, Chen L, Pereloma EV (2016) Microstructures and mechanical properties of TRIP steel produced by strip casting simulated in the laboratory. Mater Sci Eng A 664:26–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xiong ZP, Kostryzhev AG, Chen L, Pereloma EV (2016) Microstructure and mechanical properties of strip cast TRIP steel subjected to thermo-mechanical simulation. Mater Sci Eng A 677:356–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stanford N, Dorin T, Hodgson PD (2018) The effect of Nb micro-alloying on the bainitic phase transformation under strip casting conditions. Metall Mater Trans A 49:1021–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Todoroki H, Lert-A-Rom R, Cramb AW, Jimbo I, Suzuki T (1996) Evaluation of the initiation of solidification of iron against a water cooled copper mold. In: Electric furnace conference proceedings, pp 585–590Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Todoroki H, Lert-A-Rom R, Suzuki T, Cramb AW (1998) Solidification of steel droplets against a water cooled copper mold. In: Alex McLean Symposium proceedings, pp 155–175Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Todoroki H, Lert-A-Rom R, Suzuki T, Cramb AW (1997) Initial solidification of iron and nickel against a water cooled copper mold. In: Steelmaking conference proceedings, pp 667–678Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nolli P, Cramb AW (2008) Naturally deposited oxide films in near-net-shape casting: importance, mechanisms of formation, and prediction of their composition. Metall Mater Trans B 39:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Phinichka N (2001) The effect of surface tension, superheat and surface films on the rate of heat transfer from an iron droplet to a water cooled copper mold. PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon UniversityGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nolli P, Cramb AW (2007) Interaction between iron droplets and H2S during solidification: effects on heat transfer, surface tension and composition. ISIJ Int 47:1284–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang WL, Zhu CY, Lu C, Yu J, Zhou LJ (2018) Study of the heat transfer behavior and naturally deposited films in strip casting by using droplet solidification technique. Metall Mater Trans A 49:5524–5534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhu CY, Wang WL, Lu C (2019) Characterization of cermet coatings and its effect on the responding heat transfer performance in strip casting process. J Alloys Compd 770:631–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu C, Wang WL, Zeng J, Zhu CY, Chang J (2019) Effect of naturally deposited film on the sub-rapid solidification of medium manganese steel by using droplet solidification technique. Metall Mater Trans B 50:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tavares RP, Isac M, Hamel FG, Guthrie RIL (2001) Instantaneous interfacial heat fluxes during the 4 to 8 m/min casting of carbon steels in a twin-roll caster. Metall Mater Trans B 32:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lu X, Fang F, Zhang YX, Wang Y, Yuan G, Xu YB, Cao GM, Misra RKD, Wang GD (2017) Influence of rolling reduction on secondary recrystallization and magnetic properties in strip-cast grain-oriented 4.5%Si Steel. Steel Res Int. Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fang F, Lu X, Zhang YX, Wang Y, Jiao HT, Cao GM, Yuan G, Xu YB, Misra RDK, Wang GD (2017) Influence of cold rolling direction on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties in strip-cast grain-oriented 3% silicon steel. J Magn Magn Mater 424:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Song HY, Liu HT, Wang YP, Wang GD (2017) Microstructure and texture evolution of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method. J Magn Magn Mater 426:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jiao HT, Xu YB, Xu HJ, Zhang YX, Xiong W, Misra RDK, Cao GM, Li JP, Jiang JX (2018) Influence of hot deformation on texture and magnetic properties of strip cast non-oriented electrical steel. J Magn Magn Mater 462:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang YQ, Zhang XM, Zu GQ, Guan Y, Ji GF, Misra RDK (2018) Effect of hot band annealing on microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel processed by twin-roll strip casting. J Magn Magn Mater 460:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jiao HT, Xu YB, Xiong W, Zhang YX, Cao GM, Li CG, Niu J, Misra RDK (2017) High-permeability and thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steel through twin-roll strip casting. Mater Des 136:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang HS, Yuan G, Kang J, Cao GM, Li CG, Misra RDK, Wang GD (2017) Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced by strip casting. Mater Sci Eng A 703:486–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang HS, Yuan G, Zhang YX, Cao GM, Li CG, Kang J, Misra RDK, Wang GD (2017) Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of duplex TRIP steel produced by strip casting. Mater Sci Eng A 692:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Daamen M, Haase C, Dierdorf J, Molodov DA, Hirt G (2015) Twin-roll strip casting: A competitive alternative for the production of high-manganese steels with advanced mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 627:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Daamen M, Nessen W, Pinard PT, Richter S, Schwedt A, Hirt G (2014) Deformation behavior of high-manganese TWIP steels produced by twin-roll strip casting. Proc Eng 84:1535–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu HT, Chen DJ, Zhang BG, Li HL, Chen AH, Li L, Wang GD, Misra RDK (2016) The impact of hot rolling temperature after reheating in the new generation strip casting process on structure-property relationship in extra-low carbon steel. Steel Res Int 87:501–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang Y, Zhang YX, Lu X, Fang F, Xu YB, Cao GM, Li CG, Misra RDK, Wang GD (2016) A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel produced by twin-roll strip casting. J Magn Magn Mater 419:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhao Y, Zhang WN, Liu X, Liu ZY, Wang GD (2016) Development of TRIP-aided lean duplex stainless steel by twin-roll strip casting and its deformation mechanism. Metall Mater Trans A 47:6292–6303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ha MJ, Choi J, Jeong S, Moon H, Kang T, Lee S (2002) Analysis and prevention of microcracking phenomenon occurring during strip casting of an AISI 304 stainless steel. Metall Mater Trans A 33:1487–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Evans T, Strezov L (2000) Interfacial heat transfer and nucleation of steel on metallic substrates. Metall Mater Trans B 31:1081–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang Q, Chen ZH, Ding ZX (2009) Performance of abrasive wear of WC-12Co coatings sprayed by HVOF. Tribol Int 42:1046–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mojena MR, Orozco MS, Fals HC, Ferraresi VA, Lima CRC (2017) Influence of fracture toughness and microhardness on the erosive wear of cermet coatings deposited by thermal spray. Metall Mater Trans A 48:2511–2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang W, Yu Y, Fang Y, Li JG (2011) Effect of coating on instantaneous interfacial heat transfer during near-rapid solidification. J Iron Steel Res Int 18:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nolli P, Cramb AW (2006) The interaction of liquid iron with oxides and its effect on solidification and heat transfer. AIST Trans 3:169–178Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yu Y, Cramb AW, Heard R, Fang Y, Cui J (2006) The effect of oxygen partial pressure on heat transfer and solidification. ISIJ Int 46:1427–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhu CY, Wang WL, Zeng J, Lu C, Zhou LJ, Chang J (2019) Interactive relationship between the superheat, interfacial heat transfer, deposited film and microstructure in strip casting of duplex stainless steel. ISIJ Int 59:880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Haghdadi N, Cizek P, Hodgson PD, Tari V, Rohrer GS, Beladi H (2018) Effect of ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation path on the interface crystallographic character distributions in a duplex stainless steel. Acta Mater 145:196–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Metallurgy and EnvironmentCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.National Center for International Research of Clean MetallurgyCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations