Advertisement

Selective Reduction of Phosphorus from Manganese Ore to Produce Ferromanganese Alloy with Low Phosphorus Content

  • Dong Jun Shin
  • Xu GaoEmail author
  • Shigeru Ueda
  • Shin-ya Kitamura
Thematic Section: Sustainable Iron and Steelmaking
  • 20 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Sustainable Iron and Steelmaking

Abstract

The authors proposed the selective reduction of P from steelmaking slag to enable the recycling of steelmaking slag for the sintering process, and for the extraction of P and Mn separately. By decreasing the basicity of the slag and increasing the temperature of the reduction, Fe and P were reduced to the metal, while most of the Mn remained in the slag. In this study, this selective reduction technique was applied to a kind of Mn ore to remove P. The influences of the different mixing ratios of graphite, SiO2, and pig iron as well as the temperature on the reduction behavior were investigated. By adding SiO2 as a slag modifier to produce an acidic slag with a low melting temperature and adding graphite and pig iron as a reductant and receiver, respectively, the selective reduction of P without the reduction of Mn was achieved for Mn ore. When the slag obtained after the selective reduction of Mn ore was used in the smelting reduction process to produce the ferromanganese alloy, a significant decrease in the P content of ferromanganese was estimated through a mass balance calculation. Therefore, the selective reduction of P from Mn ore has the potential to produce high-grade ferromanganese alloys with low P content.

Keywords

Mn ore Selective reduction Ferromanganese alloy Low phosphorus 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Olsen SE, Tangstad M, Lindstad T (2007) Production of manganese ferroalloys. SINTEF and Tapir Academic Press, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seetharaman S, Mclean A, Guthrie R, Seetharaman S (2014) Treatise on process metallurgy. Industrial processes, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 477–532Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gasik M (2013) Handbook of ferroalloys, theory and technology. Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 221–266Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fonstein N (2015) Advanced high strength sheet steels, physical metallurgy, design, processing, and properties. Springer, New York, pp 369–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sherstyuk AA, Shulte YA (1963) Effect of phosphorus on the properties of high-manganese steel. Met Sci Heat Treat 5:271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chaudhary PN, Goel RP, Roy GG (2001) Dephosphorisation of high carbon ferromanganese using BaCO3 based fluxes. Ironmak Steelmak 28(5):396–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fujita M, Katayama H, Yamamoto A, Matsuo M (1988) Dephosphorization of Fe–Mn–C alloy with BaCO3. Tetsu-to-Hagané 74(5):816–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shim SC, Tsukihashi F, Sano N (1993) Thermodynamic properties of the BaO–MnO flux system. Metall Mater Trans B 24(2):333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Watanabe Y, Kitamura K, Rachev IP, Tsukihashi F, Sano N (1993) Thermodynamics of phosphorus and sulfur in the BaO–MnO flux system between 1573 and 1673 K. Metall Mater Trans B 24(2):339–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu X, Wijk O, Selin R, Edström JO (1998) Effects of additives in BaO–BaF2–MnO slag on phosphate and manganese capacities. ISIJ Int 38(1):36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim DY, Kim HS, Jung SM (2015) Production of (Mn, Fe)-carbide containing low phosphorus by carbothermic reduction of Mn oxide and Fe oxide. ISIJ Int 55:504–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kononov R, Ostrovski O, Ganguly S (2009) Carbothermic solid state reduction of manganese ores: 1. Manganese ore characterization. ISIJ Int 49:1099–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kononov R, Ostrovski O, Ganguly S (2009) Carbothermic solid state reduction of manganese ores: 2. Non-isothermal and isothermal reduction in different gas atmospheres. ISIJ Int 49:1107–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rao GV, Acharya BC, Murty BVR, Mohanty JN, Swamy YV, Chattopadhay P, Tripathy AK (1998) Removal of phosphorus and enrichment of manganese from a complex ferruginous manganese ore. Phys Sep Sci Eng 9(2):109–123Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Acharya BC, Rao DS, Sahoo RK (1997) Mineralogy, chemistry and genesis of Nishikhal manganese ores of South Orissa, India. Miner Depos 32(1):79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hils G, Newirkowez A, Kroker M, Grethe U, Schmidt-Jürgensen R, Kroos J, Spitzer KH (2015) Conventional and tailored Mn-bearing alloying agents for the production of high manganese steels. Steel Res Int 86(4):411–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shin D, Gao X, Ueda S, Kitamura S (2017) Separation of phosphorus and manganese in dephosphorization slag by carbothermic reduction. CAMP-ISIJ 30:248Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shin D, Gao X, Ueda S, Kitamura S (2017) Selective recovery of phosphorus and manganese from steelmaking slag by carbothermic reduction. In Proceeding 5th international slag valorization symposium, K. U. Leuven, Belgium, pp 161–164Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shin D, Gao X, Ueda S, Kitamura S (2018) Selective recovery of P and Mn from steelmaking slag by carbothermic reduction. In 9th international symposium on high-temperature metallurgical processing, Springer, Cham, pp 305–311Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shin D, Gao X, Ueda S, Kitamura S (2018) Measurement of activity coefficients of Mn and P in C saturated Fe–Mn–P alloy. CAMP-ISIJ 31:127Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shin D, Gao X, Ueda S, Kitamura S (2018) Influence of melting behavior on the selective reduction of phosphorus from steelmaking slag. CAMP-ISIJ 31:680Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fontana A, Segers L, Winand R (1981) Electrochemical measurements in silicate slags containing manganese oxide. Can Metall Q 20(2):209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Turkdogan ET, Pearson J (1953) Activities of constituents of iron and steelmaking slags. JISI 12:398–402Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suito H, Inoue R (1984) Thermodynamic considerations on manganese equilibria between liquid iron and FeO–MnO–MOx (MOx= PO2.5, SiO2, AlO1.5, MgO, CaO) slags. Tetsu-to-Hagané 70(6):533–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eissa M, Ghali S, Ahmed A, El-Faramawy H (2012) Optimum condition for smelting high carbon ferromanganese. Ironmak Steelmak 39(6):419–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Groshkova AL, Polulyakh LA, Travyanov AY, Dashevskii VY, Yusfin YS (2007) Phosphorus distribution between phases in smelting high-carbon ferromanganese in the blast furnace. Steel Transl 37(11):904–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy, Graduate School of EngineeringTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced MaterialsTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations