Shape Memory and Superelasticity

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 272–284 | Cite as

Remarks on the Particular Behavior in Martensitic Phase Transition in Cu-Based and Ni–Ti Shape Memory Alloys

  • Vicenç Torra
  • Ferran Martorell
  • Francisco C. Lovey
  • Marcos Sade


Many macroscopic behaviors of the martensitic transformations are difficult to explain in the frame of the classical first-order phase transformations, without including the role of point and crystallographic defects (dislocations, stacking faults, interfaces, precipitates). A few major examples are outlined in the present study. First, the elementary reason for thermoelasticity and pseudoelasticity in single crystals of Cu–Zn–Al (β-18R transformation) arises from the interaction of a growing martensite plate with the existing dislocations in the material. Secondly, in Cu–Al–Ni, the twinned hexagonal (γ′) martensite produces dislocations inhibiting this transformation and favoring the appearance of 18R in subsequent transformation cycles. Thirdly, single crystals of Cu–Al–Be visualize, via enhanced stress, a transformation primarily to 18R, a structural distortion of the 18R structure, and an additional transformation to another martensitic phase (i.e., 6R) with an increased strain. A dynamic behavior in Ni–Ti is also analyzed, where defects alter the pseudoelastic behavior after cycling.


Shape memory Martensitic transformation NiTi CuAlBe CuZnAl CuAlNi Mechanical behavior 



Technical supports from the Materials Laboratory of the Atomic Center of Bariloche, 8400 Argentina, and in Department of Structural Mechanics in Pavia University (Italy), the facilities in stayed cables of ELSA, Ispra, Italy, and the cable studies of IFSTTAR, Bouguenais, France, are gratefully acknowledged. Prof. Jan Van Humbeeck, we have a great pleasure contributing with this paper in occasion of your retirement. We thank you very much for your wide and fruitful contributions on many fields of metallurgy and particularly on martensitic transformations. We shall keep great remembers of our joint research, discussions, and collaborations over more than 30 years of exciting research activities. Your laboratory at the KUL was a pleasant place where we found your kind friendship and your knowledge to enrich our research. You have also traveled across the world visiting many countries. We remember your stay at the UIB (Balearic Islands) and the CAB (Bariloche, Argentina) where we accomplished interesting joint work on Shape Memory Alloys, particularly in Copper-based and Ni–Ti alloys. Many conferences like ESOMAT and ICOMAT gave us the opportunity to attend your lectures and to have interesting discussions enlightening our ideas. Dear colleague, we wish you a happy retirement and full and long life accompanied with relatives and friends.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicenç Torra
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ferran Martorell
    • 2
  • Francisco C. Lovey
    • 3
  • Marcos Sade
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Applied PhysicsPolytechnical University of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Private Research GroupBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science, Centro Atomico de BarilocheInstituto Balseiro and CONICETSan Carlos de BarilocheArgentina

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