Shape Memory and Superelasticity

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 93–101 | Cite as

Efficiency of Energy Harvesting in Ni–Mn–Ga Shape Memory Alloys

  • Paul Lindquist
  • Tony Hobza
  • Charles Patrick
  • Peter Müllner


Many researchers have reported on the voltage and power generated while energy harvesting using Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys; few researchers report on the power conversion efficiency of energy harvesting. We measured the magneto-mechanical behavior and energy harvesting of Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys to quantify the efficiency of energy harvesting using the inverse magneto-plastic effect. At low frequencies, less than 150 Hz, the power conversion efficiency is less than 0.1%. Power conversion efficiency increases with (i) increasing actuation frequency, (ii) increasing actuation stroke, and (iii) decreasing twinning stress. Extrapolating the results of low-frequency experiments to the kHz actuation regime yields a power conversion factor of about 20% for 3 kHz actuation frequency, 7% actuation strain, and 0.05 MPa twinning stress.


NiMnGa Magnetic shape memory Mechanical behavior Energy harvesting Efficiency Inverse magneto-plastic effect 



The authors thank Professors Nader Rafla and John Chiasson of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Boise State University for their technical advice during the project; mechanical engineering undergraduate students, Sam Barker and Eric Rhoades for their assistance designing and building the magneto-mechanical test apparatus; graduate student Theodore Lawrence for his assistance characterizing the composition, structure, and transformation temperatures of the samples. We acknowledge partial financial support from the National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1710640.


  1. 1.
    Suorsa I, Tellinen J, Ullakko K, Pagounis E (2004) Voltage generation induced by mechanical straining in magnetic shape memory materials. J Appl Phys 95(12):8054–8058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karaman I, Basaran B, Karaca HE, Karsilayan AI, Chumlyakov YI (2007) Energy harvesting using martensite variant reorientation mechanism in a NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy. Appl Phys Lett 90(17):172505Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marioni M, O’Handley RC, Allen SM (2003) Pulsed magnetic field-induced actuation of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals. Appl Phys Lett 83(19):3966–3968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Müllner P, Chernenko VA, Kostorz G (2003) Stress-induced twin rearrangement resulting in change of magnetization in a Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic martensite. Scripta Mater 49(2):129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li G, Liu Y, Ngoi BKA (2005) Some aspects on strain-induced change of magnetization in a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. Scripta Mater 53:829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carpenter D, Chmielus M, Rothenbühler A, Schneider R, Müllner P (2009) Application of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys in power generation devices. In: Olson GBL, Saxena DS, (eds) ICOMAT-08, Santa Fe, NM, pp 365–369Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruno NM, Ciocanel C, Feigenbaum HP, Waldauer A (2012) A theoretical and experimental investigation of power harvesting using the NiMnGa martensite reorientation mechanism. Smart Mater Struct 21:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nelson I, Ciocanel C, LaMaster D, Feigenbaum HP (2013) Three dimensional experimental characterization of NiMnGa alloy. In: Goulbourne NC, Naguib HE (eds) Behavior and mechanics of multifunctional materials and composites. SPIE, BellinghamGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guiel R, Dikes JL, Ciocanel C, Feigenbaum HP (2015) Further insight on the power harvesting capabilities of magnetic shape memory alloys. In: Conference on smart materials, adaptive structures and intelligent systems. ASME, Colorado Springs, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lindquist PG, Müllner P (2015) Working Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals in a magnetic field against a spring load. Shap Mem Superelasticity 1(1):69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hobza A, Patrick C, Ullakko K, Rafla N, Lindquist P, Müllner P (2018) Sensing strain with Ni-Mn-Ga. Sensor Actuat a-Phys 269:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Analog Devices, “Universal LVDT Signal Conditioner”, AD 698 Data Sheet, 1995 [rev. C]Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kellis D, Smith A, Ullakko K, Müllner P (2012) Oriented single crystals of Ni-Mn-Ga with very low switching field. J Cryst Growth 359:64–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faran E, Shilo D (2012) Implications of twinning kinetics on the frequency response of NiMnGa actuators. Appl Phys Lett 100(151901):1–4Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Straka L, Drahokoupil J, Pacherova O, Fabianova K, Kopecky V, Seiner H, Hänninen H, Heczko O (2016) The relation between lattice parameters and very low twinning stress in Ni50Mn25 + xGa25-x magnetic shape memory alloys. Smart Mater Struct 25(2):025001 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pagounis E, Laptev A, Jungwirth J, Laufenberg M, Fonin M (2014) Magnetomechanical properties of a high-temperature Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory actuator material. Scripta Mater 88:17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Faran E, Shilo D (2011) The kinetic relation for twin wall motion in NiMnGa. J Mech Phys Solids 59:975–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chmielus M, Witherspoon C, Ullakko K, Müllner P, Schneider R (2011) Effects of surface damage on twinning stress and the stability of twin microstructures of magnetic shape-memory alloys. Acta Mater 59:2948–2956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Musiienko D, Saren A, Ullakko K (2017) Magnetic shape memory effect in single crystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foil thinned down to 1 um. Scripta Mater 139:152–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gaitzsch U, Romberg J, Pötschke M, Roth S, Müllner P (2011) Stable magnetic-field-induced strain above 1% in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga. Scripta Mater 65:679–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Lindquist
    • 1
  • Tony Hobza
    • 1
    • 3
  • Charles Patrick
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Peter Müllner
    • 1
  1. 1.Micron School of Materials Science and EngineeringBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA
  3. 3.SpaceX CorporationHawthorneUSA
  4. 4.Department of Electrical EngineeringPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations