Efficiency of Energy Harvesting in Ni–Mn–Ga Shape Memory Alloys
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Many researchers have reported on the voltage and power generated while energy harvesting using Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys; few researchers report on the power conversion efficiency of energy harvesting. We measured the magneto-mechanical behavior and energy harvesting of Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys to quantify the efficiency of energy harvesting using the inverse magneto-plastic effect. At low frequencies, less than 150 Hz, the power conversion efficiency is less than 0.1%. Power conversion efficiency increases with (i) increasing actuation frequency, (ii) increasing actuation stroke, and (iii) decreasing twinning stress. Extrapolating the results of low-frequency experiments to the kHz actuation regime yields a power conversion factor of about 20% for 3 kHz actuation frequency, 7% actuation strain, and 0.05 MPa twinning stress.
KeywordsNiMnGa Magnetic shape memory Mechanical behavior Energy harvesting Efficiency Inverse magneto-plastic effect
The authors thank Professors Nader Rafla and John Chiasson of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Boise State University for their technical advice during the project; mechanical engineering undergraduate students, Sam Barker and Eric Rhoades for their assistance designing and building the magneto-mechanical test apparatus; graduate student Theodore Lawrence for his assistance characterizing the composition, structure, and transformation temperatures of the samples. We acknowledge partial financial support from the National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1710640.
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