Shape Memory and Superelasticity

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 16–31 | Cite as

A Kinetic Study on the Evolution of Martensitic Transformation Behavior and Microstructures in Ti–Ta High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys During Aging

  • Alexander PaulsenEmail author
  • Jan Frenzel
  • Dennis Langenkämper
  • Ramona Rynko
  • Peter Kadletz
  • Lukas Grossmann
  • Wolfgang W. Schmahl
  • Christoph Somsen
  • Gunther Eggeler
Special Issue: HTSMA 2018


Ti–Ta alloys represent candidate materials for high-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMAs). They outperform several other types of HTSMAs in terms of cost, ductility, and cold workability. However, Ti–Ta alloys are characterized by a relatively fast microstructural degradation during exposure to elevated temperatures, which gives rise to functional fatigue. In the present study, we investigate how isothermal aging affects the martensitic transformation behavior and microstructures in Ti70Ta30 HTSMAs. Ti–Ta sheets with fully recrystallized grain structures were obtained from a processing route involving arc melting, heat treatments, and rolling. The final Ti–Ta sheets were subjected to an extensive aging heat treatment program. Differential scanning calorimetry and various microstructural characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, conventional X-ray, and synchrotron diffraction were used for the characterization of resulting material states. We identify different types of microstructural evolution processes and their effects on the martensitic and reverse transformation. Based on these results, an isothermal time temperature transformation (TTT) diagram for Ti70Ta30 was established. This TTT plot rationalizes the dominating microstructural evolution processes and related kinetics. In the present work, we also discuss possible options to slow down microstructural and functional degradation in Ti–Ta HTSMAs.


High-temperature shape-memory alloys Martensitic transformation Microstructure Phase stability Precipitation Omega phase 



The authors acknowledge financial support from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through Projects TP1 (FR2675/3-2), TP2 (SO505/2-2 and EG101/22-2), and TP3 (SCHM930/13-2) in the framework of the research group FOR 1766 “Hochtemperatur-Formgedächtnislegierungen.” We acknowledge DESY (Hamburg, Germany), a member of the Helmholtz Association HGF, for the provision of experimental facilities. Parts of this research were carried out at PETRA III and we would like to thank Jozef Bednarcik for assistance in using photon beamline P02.1 and the support laboratory.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Paulsen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan Frenzel
    • 1
  • Dennis Langenkämper
    • 1
  • Ramona Rynko
    • 1
  • Peter Kadletz
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lukas Grossmann
    • 2
  • Wolfgang W. Schmahl
    • 2
  • Christoph Somsen
    • 1
  • Gunther Eggeler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for MaterialsRuhr University BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Applied Crystallography and Materials Science, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of GeosciencesLudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMunichGermany
  3. 3.European Spallation Source ESS ERICLundSweden

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