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Emission Control Science and Technology

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 271–278 | Cite as

Study of Brake Wear Particle Emissions of a Minivan on a Chassis Dynamometer

  • Leonidas Chasapidis
  • Theodoros Grigoratos
  • Alexandra Zygogianni
  • Apostolos Tsakis
  • Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Article

Abstract

Car brakes appear to be a significant atmospheric pollutant source, with a contribution to total non-exhaust traffic-related PM10 emissions being estimated at approximately 55% in big cities and urban environments (Bukowiecki et al., 2009). Brake wear particle emissions of a minivan running on a chassis dynamometer were measured using a custom sampling system, positioned close to the braking system, under different initial speeds (30 km/h and 50 km/h), deceleration rates (0.5 m/s2, 1.5 m/s2, 2.5 m/s2), and ambient temperatures (0 °C, 15 °C and 25 °C). Braking from 50 km/h to full stop, results in 40–100% more particles compared to 30 km/h, depending on the deceleration rate. It was also found that only 9–50% of the total particles emitted, are released during the braking phase and therefore the most significant amount is released on the following acceleration phase. High brake pad temperature results in a bimodal distribution with the first peak being at 1 μm and the second falling at the nanometer scale at 200 nm. The ambient temperature appears to have a negligible effect on the particle generation.

Keywords

Brake wear particles 

Nomenclature

a

Time at 10th braking

APTL

Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory

b

Time at 20th braking

BM

Braking metric (bar s)

CPC

Condensation particle counter

ELPI

Electrical low pressure impactor

HBP

Hydraulic brake pressure

MOBILAB

Mobile laboratory

OBD

On board diagnostics

PM

Particulate matter

PN

Particulate number

PN¬background

Minimum of PN curve from a to b time

PNCPC

CPC concentration

PNsampled

Total particle number collected

Qanalyzer

Flow rate of CPC (25 cm3/s)

WLTP

Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure

Δx

Analyzer measurement interval (1 s)

Notes

Funding Information

The presented work has been funded by the European Commission through FP7 project APT-STEP (Grant Agreement No. 315871).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, Chemical Process and Energy Resources InstituteCentre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH)ThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)Institute for Energy and Transport (IET), Sustainable Transport Unit (STU)IspraItaly
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringAristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece

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