Geophysical investigation of groundwater potential, aquifer parameters, and vulnerability: a case study of Enugu State College of Education (Technical)

  • Bethrand Ekwundu Oguama
  • Johnson Cletus IbuotEmail author
  • Daniel Nnaemeka Obiora
  • Mfoniso Udofia Aka
Original Article


This study was carried out employing vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with the objective of evaluating the groundwater potential and vulnerability. The study involves a total of seven VES and three ERT profiles employing Schlumberger and Wenner electrodes’ configuration, respectively. The data were analyzed both manually and with WinResist and RES2DINV software packages. The results revealed the variation of resistivity across the study area within the maximum current penetration. The aquifer resistivity and thickness range from 6.2 to 204.2 Ω m and 18.2 to 56.4 m, respectively. The estimated parameters (longitudinal conductance, transverse resistance, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity) range: 0.003–0.02 Ω−1, 141.68–575.77 Ω m2, 2.71–70.45 m/day, and 49.23–3973.28 m2/day, respectively. It was observed that the groundwater potential is good in the study area and the protective capacity determine from the estimated longitudinal conductance showed poor protective capacity across the study area, indicating high vulnerability. The poor protective capacity renders the aquifer vulnerable to contamination and this is a major threat to groundwater in the study area.


Aquifer VES ERT Longitudinal conductance Transmissivity Vulnerability 



Authors are grateful to the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND), who financed the project through research grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bethrand Ekwundu Oguama
    • 1
  • Johnson Cletus Ibuot
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daniel Nnaemeka Obiora
    • 2
  • Mfoniso Udofia Aka
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physics EducationEnugu State College of Education (Technical)EnuguNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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