Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 307–329 | Cite as

Relation between urban biophysical composition and dynamics of land surface temperature in the Kolkata metropolitan area: a GIS and statistical based analysis for sustainable planning

  • Subrata GhoshEmail author
  • Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
  • Santanu Dinda
Original Article


The major environmental impacts of urbanization have changed urban biophysical components which ultimately promoted land surface temperature (LST) as well as urban heat island (UHI). This study explores the upshot of land use land cover (LULC) and resultant effect on biophysical components to understand the heat island mechanism in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) for four selected time period of 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2017. Six satellite-derived biophysical components were selected for the present analysis: NDBI, NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI, NDBaI and SAVI. Selected bands of Landsat-5 TM and OLI-8 were used for this purpose. The result shows that the built-up area has been increased from 322.68 km2 in 1991 to 982.86 km2 in 2017 and accordingly, LST also rises from 18.47 °C mean LST of 1991 to 23.30 °C mean LST of 2017. The correlation coefficient among the biophysical parameters and LST shows that the highest continuous increasing positive relationship between NDBI and LST (R = 0.71). Moreover, multiple linear regression model (MLR) is adapted to the prediction on LST with the variation of biophysical parameters. Finally, we produced hot spot maps using Getis-Ord-Gi* statistics for the selected year to highlights the hot spot and cold spot area in KMA. The methodology presented in this paper can be broadly applied for the planning purposes because LST monitoring is an important parameter of sustainable urban planning.


Land uses land cover change Biophysical indices LST Multiple linear regression (MLR) Hotspot-coldspot areas Kolkata Metropolitan area 



The authors acknowledge to USGS for providing Landsat data. The authors Ghosh, S and Dinda, S are thankful to the University Grant Commission (UGC) for providing research grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that, there has no potential conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environment ManagementVidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia

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