Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 981–1006 | Cite as

Sedimentalogical study for the Upper Shale member in Zubair formation to enhance and comparison oil production in North Rumaila oilfield

  • Hayder Kadhim AlmayyahiEmail author
  • Mohanad Hamed Aljaberi
Original Article


Zubair is the most important formation in Lower Cretaceous deposition cycle in Iraq. It consists mainly of interbedded Sandstone, Shale, Siltstone and sometimes thin beds of Carbonate. This Formation has five members in Iraq; the Upper Shale is one of these members. Upper Shale rocks can be distinguished by electrofacies and grain size analysis. The electrofacies that distinguished by Gamma-ray didn’t give the true lithology. Quartz is the main component of the Sandstone in the Upper Shale with minor percentage of Silt and clay minerals. Sand grain size ranges from very fine to medium, with roundness ranging from sub rounded to sub angular. Sandstone types are arenite and wacke. Grain size analysis presented that the sand percentage is predominant in all Rumaila oilfield with a little percentage of Silt and Clay minerals. Scanning electron microscope showed the primary and secondary porosity with diagenesis process effective of granular in South and North of Rumaila oilfield. The diagenetic processes affected of Upper Shale in different intensities. The result of these processes on primary porosity, permeability, and compaction was in different ways. Upper Shale member in North of Rumaila was covered by Silt and Clay minerals, this would affect the permeability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that clay minerals consist mainly of Kaolinite, with few presence of Illite.


Sedimentology Zubair formation Rumaila oilfield Porosity 


  1. Al-Jabberi MHA (2010) Sedimentological and environmental aspects of subsurface Basrah sediments-South Iraq. Mesopotamian J Mar Sci 25(2):176–187Google Scholar
  2. Allison MA, Khan SR, Goodbred SL, Kuehl SA (2003) Stratigraphic evolution of the late Holocene Ganges–Brahmaputra lower delta plain. Sedim Geol 155:317–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Awadh SM (2018) Physico-chemical characterization and salinity distribution of the oilfield water in the upper member of zubair sandstones in rumaila north oilfield, southern Iraq. Iran J Oil Gas Sci Technol 7(1):20–39Google Scholar
  4. Awadh SM, Al-Yaseri AA, Hussein AR (2015) The Influence of Kaolinite and pH on permeability in the Zubair reservoir in the North Rumaila Oilfield, Southern Iraq. In: 3rd EAGE Workshop on IraqGoogle Scholar
  5. Baiyegunhi C, Liu K, Gwavava O (2017) Diagenesis and reservoir properties of the permian ECCA Group sandstones and mudrocks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Minerals 7(6):88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burley SD, Worden H (2003) Sandstone diagenesis: recent and ancient. Blackwell Publishing, Amsterdam, 649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carroll D (1970) Clay minerals: a guide to their X-ray identification. Geological Society of America, special paper 126, Colorado, p 89Google Scholar
  8. Chu C, Wu Z, Deng Y, Chen Y, Wang Q (2017) Intrinsic compression behavior of remolded sand–clay mixture. Can Geotech J 54(7):926–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Curray JR, Emmel FJ, Moore DG (2003) The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Mar Petrol Geol 19:1191–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deer WA, Howie RA, Zussman J (1975) An introduction to rock forming minerals. Longman group Ltd., London, 528Google Scholar
  11. Dickenson WR (1988) Provenance and sediment dispersal in relation to plate tectonic and paleogeography of sedimentary basins. In: Klienspehn KL, Paola C (eds) New perspectives in basin analysis, Springer, New York, 3–25Google Scholar
  12. Drever JI (1982) Geochemistry natural waters. Prentically, Inc., Englewood Differ, 388Google Scholar
  13. Einsele G (2000) Sedimentary basins, evolution, facies and sediment budget, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Folk RL (1965) Petrology of sedimentary rocks (PDF version). Austin: Hemphill’s Bookstore. 2nd. ISBN 0-914696-14-9Google Scholar
  15. Garzanti E, Andò S, France-Lanord C, Vezzoli G, Galy V, Najman Y (2010) Mineralogical and chemical variability of fluvial sediments. 1. Bedload sand (Ganga–Brahmaputra, Bangladesh). Earth Planet Sci Lett 299:368–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. GKAY D, Rex RW (1966) Formation damage in sandstones caused by clay dispersion and migration. In: Clays and clay minerals: proceedings of the fourteenth national conference, pp 355–366Google Scholar
  17. Hay WW (1998) Detrital sediment fluxes from continents to oceans. Chem Geol 145:287–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayes JB (1979) Sandstone diagenesis—the hole truth. In: Scholle PA, Schluger PR (eds) Aspects of diagenesis. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication no. 26Google Scholar
  19. Lohse D, van der Meer D (2009) Granular media: Structures in sand streams. Nature 459(7250):1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Milliman JD, Meade RH (1983) World delivery of river sediment to the oceans. J Geol 91:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pettijiohn FJ (1975) Sedimentary rocks, (3rd edn), Harper and Row, New York, 628Google Scholar
  22. Rungjiratananon W, Szego Z, Kanamori Y, Nishita T (2008) Real-time animation of sand–water interaction. Comput Graph Forum 27(7):1887–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Salem AM, Ketzer JM, Morad S, Rizk RR, Al-Aasm IS (2005) diagenesis and reservoir-quality evolution of incised-valley sandstones: evidence from the Abu Madi Gas Reservoirs (Upper Miocene), the Nile Delta Basin, Egypt. J Sediment Res 75:572–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schmidt V, Macdonald DA (1979) The role of secondary porosity in the course of sandstone diagenesis. In: Scholle PA, Schuldger PR (eds), Aspects of diagenesis, Soc. Econ. Paleont. Miner. Spec. Publ., Tulsa, OK, 29, 175–207Google Scholar
  25. Schofield RK, Samson HR (1952) The Deflocculation of Kaolinite Suspensions and the accompanying change-over from positive to negative chloride adsorption. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, 45–51Google Scholar
  26. Scholle PA (1981) A color illustrated guide to constituents, textures, cements, and porosities of sandstones and associated rocks. The American of Petroleum Geologists with the support of the American Association Petroleum Geologists Foundation, Tulsa, OklahomaGoogle Scholar
  27. Seeman U (1979) Diagenetically formed interstitial clay minerals as a factor in Rotliengende Sandstone Reservoir Quality in the North Sea. J Pet Geol I 3:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Selley RC (2000) Applied sedimentology. Academic Press, Cambridge, 523Google Scholar
  29. Suttner LJ, Dutta PK (1986) Alluvial sandstone composition and paleoclimate, I. Framework Mineral J Sedimentol Pet 56:329–345Google Scholar
  30. Tavakoli V (2018) Core analysis: an introduction. In: Geological core analysis. Springer, Cham, 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thorez J (1976) Practical identification of clay minerals. Lellote, Belgium, p 89Google Scholar
  32. Tucker ME (1985) Sedimentary petrology, an introduction, (4th edn). Black Well Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam, 252Google Scholar
  33. Wang Y, Van Cappellen P (1996) A multicomponent reactive transport model of early diagenesis: application to redox cycling in coastal marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60(16):2993–3014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhu Y, Song X, Song B, Tian C, Gao Y, Li Y, Ma S, Wei C, Zhu E, Zhang W, Li B (2016) Genesis and distributions of typical architecture sand bodies and their evolution in relative sea-level fluctuations for a giant cretaceous delta of the Upper Shale Member, Zubair Formation in the Rm Oilfield. In: International petroleum technology conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 14–16 November Google Scholar
  35. Zitha P, Zornes RFD, Brown K, Mohanty K (2011) Increasing hydrocarbon recovery factors. Society of Petroleum Engineers 2011. Disponível em: Acesso em: 20 May 2014

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hayder Kadhim Almayyahi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohanad Hamed Aljaberi
    • 2
  1. 1.Basra Oil CompanyBasraIraq
  2. 2.Department of Geology, College of ScienceUniversity of BasraBasraIraq

Personalised recommendations