Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 647–658 | Cite as

Geochemical evolution of groundwater along flow path in Upper Vellar sub basin, Tamilnadu, India: an integrated approach using hydrochemistry, modeling and statistical techniques

  • K. Saravanan
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
  • S. Gopinath
  • R. Prakash
  • C. S. Suma
  • J. Vinnarasi
  • G. Ponnumani
Original Article


Hydrochemical, multivariate statistical, geochemical inverse and flow modeling techniques were attempted to examine groundwater recharge, flow and hydro chemical evolution along groundwater flow path in upper vellar hard rock aquifers. A total of 74 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for different chemical constituents. Results revealed that three types of water facies were isolated as young, intermediate and matured type. Both hydrochemical and multivariate statistical analyses indicate groundwater in higher elevation observed with lower ionic ratios, plain and low lying areas with medium and higher ionic ratios respectively. Inverse geochemical modeling signify silicate minerals as precipitating and gypsum anhydride and NaCl species tend to dissolve due to limited availability of ions. Hydrochemical alteration seems to be influenced by rock water interaction, ion exchange and anthropogenic processes. .


Hydrochemical evolution PHREEQC Groundwater flow Multivariate statistical 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesPondicherry UniversityPondicherryIndia

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