Evolutionary Psychological Science

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 44–57 | Cite as

Mapping Ideology: Combining the Schwartz Value Circumplex with Evolutionary Theory to Explain Ideological Differences

  • Jeffrey S. SinnEmail author
Theoretical Article


Schwartz Value Theory (SVT; Schwartz in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1–65, 1992) offers a coherent and well-organized framework for describing and explaining ideological differences. Though not developed within SVT, the pattern of tradeoffs among different values suggests adaption to an interacting set of selection pressures. The present project combines SVT with a variety of evolutionary theories to build a richer nomological network for explaining ideological differences. The paper first draws on evolutionary-coalitional theory (ECT; Sinn and Hayes in Political Psychology, 38, 1043–1064, 2017, in Political Psychology, 2018) to explain key strategic tradeoffs captured by SVT. ECT argues that coalitional conflict in the ancestral environment helped produce three distinct ideological orientations: Right Wing Authoritarianism/Binding, Social Dominance Orientation/Exploiting, and Universalizing/Liberating. Each orientation represents a specific strategic gambit for enhancing reproductive fitness with distinct costs and benefits. The paper then suggests how SVT can potentially offer an even more comprehensive framework for explaining ideological differences by drawing upon evolutionary theories related to life-history, signaling, parent-offspring conflict, and ethnic nepotism.


Ideology Right Wing Authoritarianism Social Dominance Orientation Evolutionary Coalitional Theory Schwartz Value Theory 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Abbink, K., & Herrmann, B. (2011). The moral costs of nastiness. Economic Inquiry, 49, 631–633. Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. D. (1989). The evolution of the human psyche. In C. Stringer & P. Mellars (Eds.), The human revolution: Behavioral and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans (pp. 455–513). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, A. C., Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. (2015). Emancipating sexuality: breakthroughs into a bulwark of tradition. Social Indicators Research, 129, 909–935. Scholar
  4. Alexandra, V., Torres, M. M., Kovbasyuk, O., Addo, T. B. A., & Ferreira, M. C. (2017). The relationship between social cynicism belief, social dominance orientation, and the perception of unethical behavior: a cross-cultural examination in Russia, Portugal, and the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 146, 545–562. Scholar
  5. Altemeyer, R. (1981). Right-wing authoritarianism. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  6. Altemeyer, R. (1996). The authoritarian specter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Apostolou, M. (2009). Parent–offspring conflict over mating: the case of short-term mating strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 895–899. Scholar
  8. Asbrock, F., & Fritsche, I. (2013). Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the me or the we? International Journal of Psychology, 48, 35–49. Scholar
  9. Bailey, D. H., Winegard, B., Oxford, J., & Geary, D. C. (2012). Sex differences in in-group cooperation vary dynamically with competitive conditions and outcomes. Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 147470491201000130. Scholar
  10. Bauer, M., Cassar, A., Chytilova, J., & Henrich, J. (2014). War’s enduring effects on the development of egalitarian motivations and in-group biases. Psychological Science, 25, 47–57. Scholar
  11. Betzig, L. L. (1986). Despotism and differential reproduction: A Darwinian view of history. Piscataway: Aldine Transaction.Google Scholar
  12. Billingsley, J., Lieberman, D., & Tybur, J. M. (2018). Sexual disgust trumps pathogen disgust in predicting voter behavior during the 2016 u.s. presidential election. Evolutionary Psychology, 16, 1474704918764170. Scholar
  13. Blanc, S. L., & Register, K. E. (2013). Constant battles: The myth of the peaceful, noble savage (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  14. Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the forest: The evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Boehm, C., & Flack, J. C. (2010). The emergence of simple and complex power structures through social niche construction. In A. Guinote & T. K. Vescio (Eds.), The social psychology of power (pp. 46–86). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bøggild, T., & Laustsen, L. (2016). An intra-group perspective on leader preferences: different risks of exploitation shape preferences for leader facial dominance. The Leadership Quarterly, 27, 820–837. Scholar
  17. Bonanno, G. A., & Jost, J. T. (2006). Conservative shift among high-exposure survivors of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 28, 311–323. Scholar
  18. Bore, M., Munro, D., Kerridge, I., & Powis, D. (2005). Not moral “reasoning”: a Libertarian - Communitarian dimension of moral orientation and Schwartz’s value types. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57, 38–48. Scholar
  19. Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2011). A cooperative species: Human reciprocity and its evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Brewer, G., & Howarth, S. (2012). Sport, attractiveness and aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 640–643. Scholar
  21. Bugental, D. B. (2000). Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 187–219. Scholar
  22. Buss, D. M. (1995). Evolutionary psychology: a new paradigm for psychological science. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 1–30. Scholar
  23. Buss, D. M., & Duntley, J. D. (2008). Adaptations for exploitation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 12, 53–62.Google Scholar
  24. Buunk, A. P., Park, J. H., & Dubbs, S. L. (2008). Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences. Review of General Psychology, 12, 47–62. Scholar
  25. Calhoun, C. (1991). Morality, identity, and historical explanation: Charles Taylor on the sources of the self. Sociological Theory, 9, 232–263. Scholar
  26. Caprara, G. V., Schwartz, S. H., Capanna, C., Vecchione, M., & Barbaranelli, C. (2006). Personality and politics: values, traits, and political choice. Political Psychology, 27, 1–28. Scholar
  27. Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S. H., Schoen, H., Bain, P. G., Silvester, J., Cieciuch, J., Pavlopoulos, V., Bianchi, G., Kirmanoglu, H., Baslevent, C., Mamali, C., Manzi, J., Katayama, M., Posnova, T., Tabernero, C., Torres, C., Verkasalo, M., Lönnqvist, J. E., Vondráková, E., & Caprara, M. G. (2017). Basic values, ideological self-placement, and voting: a cross-cultural study. Cross-Cultural Research, 51, 388–411. Scholar
  28. Cohrs, J. C., Moschner, B., Maes, J., & Kielmann, S. (2005). The motivational bases of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation: relations to values and attitudes in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1425–1434. Scholar
  29. Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Morality and its relation to political ideology: the role of promotion and prevention concerns. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1164–1172. Scholar
  30. Cottrell, C. A., & Neuberg, S. L. (2005). Different emotional reactions to different groups: a sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice.”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 770. Scholar
  31. Cozzolino, P. J., & Snyder, M. (2008). Good times, bad times: how personal disadvantage moderates the relationship between social dominance and efforts to win. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1420–1433.Google Scholar
  32. Crespi, B. (2016). The kin selection of religion. In The Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology and religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from. Scholar
  33. Crespi, B., & Summers, K. (2014). Inclusive fitness theory for the evolution of religion. Animal Behaviour, 92, 313–323. Scholar
  34. Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302.Google Scholar
  35. Dahl, J., Vescio, T., & Weaver, K. (2015). How threats to masculinity sequentially cause public discomfort, anger, and ideological dominance over women. Social Psychology, 46, 242–254. Scholar
  36. de Vyver, J. V., Houston, D. M., Abrams, D., & Vasiljevic, M. (2016). Boosting belligerence: how the July 7, 2005, London bombings affected liberals’ moral foundations and prejudice. Psychological Science, 27, 169–177. Scholar
  37. Del Giudice, M., Gangestad, S. W., & Kaplan, H. S. (2015). Life history theory and evolutionary psychology. The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology Google Scholar
  38. Diekhof, E. K., Wittmer, S., & Reimers, L. (2014). Does competition really bring out the worst? Testosterone, social distance and inter-male competition shape parochial altruism in human males. PLoS One, 9, e98977. Scholar
  39. Dubbs, S. L., & Buunk, A. P. (2010). Parents just don’t understand: parent-offspring conflict over mate choice. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 586–598. Scholar
  40. Duckitt, J., & Sibley, C. G. (2010). Personality, ideology, prejudice, and politics: a dual-process motivational model. Journal of Personality, 78, 1861–1894. Scholar
  41. Duckitt, J., & Sibley, C. G. (2017). The dual process motivational model of ideology and prejudice. In C. G. Sibley & F. K. Barlow (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of the psychology of prejudice (pp. 188–221). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scholar
  42. Duckitt, J., Bizumic, B., Krauss, S. W., & Heled, E. (2010). A tripartite approach to right-wing authoritarianism: the authoritarianism-conservatism-traditionalism model. Political Psychology, 31, 685–715. Scholar
  43. Duriez, B., & Van Hiel, A. (2002). The march of modern fascism. A comparison of social dominance orientation and authoritarianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1199–1213. Scholar
  44. Duriez, B., Van Hiel, A., & Kossowska, M. (2005). Authoritarianism and social dominance in western and eastern Europe: the importance of the sociopolitical context and of political interest and involvement. Political Psychology, 26, 299–320. Scholar
  45. Feather, N. T., & McKee, I. R. (2012). Values, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and ambivalent attitudes toward women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 2479–2504. Scholar
  46. Fessler, D. M., & Holbrook, C. (2014). Marching into battle: synchronized walking diminishes the conceptualized formidability of an antagonist in men. Biology Letters, 10, 20140592. Scholar
  47. Fessler, D. M., Holbrook, C., & Dashoff, D. (2016). Dressed to kill? Visible markers of coalitional affiliation enhance conceptualized formidability. Aggressive Behavior, 42, 299–309. Scholar
  48. Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Sefcek, J. A., Kirsner, B. R., & Jacobs, W. J. (2005). The K-factor: individual differences in life history strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1349–1360. Scholar
  49. Fischer, P., Fischer, J., Frey, D., Such, M., Smyth, M., Tester, M., & Kastenmüller, A. (2010). Causal evidence that terrorism salience increases authoritarian parenting practices. Social Psychology, 41, 246–254. Scholar
  50. Flinn, M. V., Geary, D. C., & Ward, C. V. (2005). Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races: why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 10–46. Scholar
  51. Friesen, J. P., Kay, A. C., Eibach, R. P., & Galinsky, A. D. (2014). Seeking structure in social organization: compensatory control and the psychological advantages of hierarchy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 590–609. Scholar
  52. Fritsche, I., Jonas, E., Ablasser, C., Beyer, M., Kuban, J., Manger, A.-M., & Schultz, M. (2013). The power of we: evidence for group-based control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 19–32. Scholar
  53. Gangestad, S. W., & Simpson, J. A. (2000). The evolution of human mating: trade-offs and strategic pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 573–587. Scholar
  54. Garandeau, C. F., Lee, I. A., & Salmivalli, C. (2014). Inequality matters: classroom status hierarchy and adolescents’ bullying. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 1123–1133. Scholar
  55. Gat, A. (2000a). The human motivational complex: evolutionary theory and the causes of hunter-gatherer fighting. Part I. Primary somatic and reproductive causes. Anthropological Quarterly, 73, 20–34.Google Scholar
  56. Gat, A. (2000b). The human motivational complex: evolutionary theory and the causes of hunter-gatherer fighting, part II. Proximate, subordinate, and derivative causes. Anthropological Quarterly, 73, 74–88.Google Scholar
  57. Gavrilets, S., & Fortunato, L. (2014). A solution to the collective action problem in between-group conflict with within-group inequality. Nature Communications, 5, 3526. Scholar
  58. Gavrilets, S., Duenez-Guzman, E. A., & Vose, M. D. (2008). Dynamics of alliance formation and the egalitarian revolution. PLoS One, 3, e3293. Scholar
  59. Goodboy, A. K., Martin, M. M., & Rittenour, C. E. (2016). Bullying as a display of social dominance orientation. Communication Research Reports, 33, 159–165. Scholar
  60. Gowaty, P. A. (2003). Power asymmetries between the sexes, mate preferences, and components of fitness. In C. B. Travis (Ed.), Evolution, gender, and rape (pp. 61–86). MIT Press.Google Scholar
  61. Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 96, 1029–1046. Scholar
  62. Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 366–385. Scholar
  63. Haidt, J., & Hersh, M. A. (2001). Sexual morality: the cultures and emotions of conservatives and liberals. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 191–221. Scholar
  64. Henry, P. J. (2011). The role of stigma in understanding ethnicity differences in authoritarianism. Political Psychology, 32, 419–438. Scholar
  65. Heylen, B., & Pauwels, L. J. (2015). The social roots of contemporary prejudice. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 4, 28–35.Google Scholar
  66. Hildreth, J. A. D., Gino, F., & Bazerman, M. (2016). Blind loyalty? When group loyalty makes us see evil or engage in it. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 132, 16–36. Scholar
  67. Ho, A. K., Sidanius, J., Kteily, N., Sheehy-Skeffington, J., Pratto, F., Henkel, K. E., Foels, R., & Stewart, A. L. (2015). The nature of social dominance orientation: theorizing and measuring preferences for intergroup inequality using the new SDO7 scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 1003–1028.
  68. Hogg, M. A. (2014). From uncertainty to extremism social categorization and identity processes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 338–342. Scholar
  69. Horberg, E., Oveis, C., Keltner, D., & Cohen, A. B. (2009). Disgust and the moralization of purity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 963.Google Scholar
  70. Hruschka, D. J., & Henrich, J. (2013). Institutions, parasites and the persistence of in-group preferences. PLoS One, 8, e63642. Scholar
  71. Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: The human development sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Inglehart, R. F., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., et al. (Eds.). (2014). World values survey: Round six - country-pooled Datafile version: Madrid: JD systems institute. Madrid: JD Systems Institute Retrieved from Scholar
  73. Iyer, R., Koleva, S., Graham, J., Ditto, P., & Haidt, J. (2012). Understanding libertarian morality: the psychological dispositions of self-identified libertarians. PLoS One, 7, e42366. Scholar
  74. Jones, D. N. (2014). Predatory personalities as behavioral mimics and parasites: mimicry–deception theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 445–451. Scholar
  75. Jones, D. (2018). Kin selection and ethnic group selection. Evolution and Human Behavior, 39, 9–18. Scholar
  76. Jones, D. N., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). The core of darkness: uncovering the heart of the dark triad. European Journal of Personality, 27, 521–531. Scholar
  77. Jost, J. T., Stern, C., Rule, N. O., & Sterling, J. (2017). The politics of fear: is there an ideological asymmetry in existential motivation? Social Cognition, 35, 324–353. Scholar
  78. Keeley, L. H. (1996). War before civilization: The myth of the peaceful savage. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Kerry, N., & Murray, D. R. (2018). Conservative parenting: investigating the relationships between parenthood, moral judgment, and social conservatism. Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 88–96. Scholar
  80. Knauft, B. M. (1991). Violence and sociality in human evolution. Current Anthropology, 32, 391–428.Google Scholar
  81. Koleva, S. P., Graham, J., Iyer, R., Ditto, P. H., & Haidt, J. (2012). Tracing the threads: how five moral concerns (especially purity) help explain culture war attitudes. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 184–194. Scholar
  82. Kteily, N., Cotterill, S., Sidanius, J., Sheehy-Skeffington, J., & Bergh, R. (2014). “Not one of us” predictors and consequences of denying ingroup characteristics to ambiguous targets. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1231–1247. Scholar
  83. Kugler, M., Jost, J. T., & Noorbaloochi, S. (2014). Another look at moral foundations theory: do authoritarianism and social dominance orientation explain liberal-conservative differences in “moral” intuitions? Social Justice Research, 27, 413–431. Scholar
  84. Kurzban, R., Dukes, A., & Weeden, J. (2010). Sex, drugs and moral goals: reproductive strategies and views about recreational drugs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277, 3501–3508. Scholar
  85. Laustsen, L. (2017). Choosing the right candidate: observational and experimental evidence that conservatives and liberals prefer powerful and warm candidate personalities, respectively. Political Behavior, 39, 883–908. Scholar
  86. Laustsen, L., & Petersen, M. B. (2015). Does a competent leader make a good friend? Conflict, ideology and the psychologies of friendship and followership. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 286–293. Scholar
  87. Laustsen, L., & Petersen, M. B. (2016). Winning faces vary by ideology: how nonverbal source cues influence election and communication success in politics. Political Communication, 33, 188–211. Scholar
  88. Laustsen, L., & Petersen, M. B. (2017). Perceived conflict and leader dominance: individual and contextual factors behind preferences for dominant leaders. Political Psychology, 38, 1083–1101. Scholar
  89. Laustsen, L., Petersen, M. B., & Klofstad, C. A. (2015). Vote choice, ideology, and social dominance orientation influence preferences for lower pitched voices in political candidates. Evolutionary Psychology, 13, 1474704915600576. Scholar
  90. Lavine, H., Lodge, M., Polichak, J., & Taber, C. (2002). Explicating the black box through experimentation: studies of authoritarianism and threat. Political Analysis, 10, 343–361. Scholar
  91. Lavine, H., Lodge, M., & Freitas, K. (2005). Threat, authoritarianism, and selective exposure to information. Political Psychology, 26, 219–244. Scholar
  92. Leone, L., Giacomantonio, M., & Lauriola, M. (2017). Moral foundations, worldviews, moral absolutism and belief in conspiracy theories. International Journal of Psychology.
  93. Li, Y. J., Cohen, A. B., Weeden, J., & Kenrick, D. T. (2010). Mating competitors increase religious beliefs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 428–431. Scholar
  94. Liddle, J. R., Shackelford, T. K., & Weekes–Shackelford, V. A. (2012). Why can’t we all just get along? Evolutionary perspectives on violence, homicide, and war. Review of General Psychology, 16, 24–36.
  95. Liptak, A. (2018). How Conservatives Weaponized the First Amendment. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  96. Livi, S., Leone, L., Falgares, G., & Lombardo, F. (2014). Values, ideological attitudes and patriotism. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 141–146. Scholar
  97. Lucas, B., & Kteily, N. (2016). High SDO individuals display moral concern for harm to high status (but not low status) targets. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016, 12048. Scholar
  98. Ludeke, S. G., Johnson, W., & Bouchard, T. J. (2013). “Obedience to traditional authority:” a heritable factor underlying authoritarianism, conservatism and religiousness. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 375–380. Scholar
  99. Makowsky, M. D., & Smaldino, P. E. (2016). The evolution of power and the divergence of cooperative norms. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 126, Part A, 75–88. Scholar
  100. McDonald, M. M., Navarrete, C. D., & Van Vugt, M. (2012). Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367, 670–679. Scholar
  101. McDonald, M. M., Donnellan, M. B., Cesario, J., & Navarrete, C. D. (2015). Mate choice preferences in an intergroup context: evidence for a sexual coercion threat-management system among women. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 438–445. Scholar
  102. McFarland, S. (2010). Authoritarianism, social dominance, and other roots of generalized prejudice. Political Psychology, 31, 453–477. Scholar
  103. McKee, I. R., & Feather, N. T. (2008). Revenge, retribution, and values: social attitudes and punitive sentencing. Social Justice Research, 21, 138–163. Scholar
  104. Miles, A., & Vaisey, S. (2015). Morality and politics: comparing alternate theories. Social Science Research, 53, 252–269. Scholar
  105. Moon, J. W., Krems, J. A., & Cohen, A. B. (2018). Religious people are trusted because they are viewed as slow life-history strategists. Psychological Science, 29, 947–960. Scholar
  106. Nail, P. R., & McGregor, I. (2009). Conservative shift among liberals and conservatives following 9/11/01. Social Justice Research, 22, 231–240. Scholar
  107. Nail, P. R., McGregor, I., Drinkwater, A. E., Steele, G. M., & Thompson, A. W. (2009). Threat causes liberals to think like conservatives. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 901–907. Scholar
  108. Newson, L., & Richerson, P. (2014). Religion: The dynamics of cultural adaptations. In Evolution, religion, and cognitive science: Critical and constructive essays. New York: Oxford University Press Retrieved from Scholar
  109. Newson, L., Postmes, T., Lea, S. E. G., & Webley, P. (2005). Why are modern families small? Toward an evolutionary and cultural explanation for the demographic transition. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 360–375. Scholar
  110. Parkins, I. S., Fishbein, H. D., & Ritchey, P. N. (2006). The influence of personality on workplace bullying and discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 2554–2577. Scholar
  111. Passini, S. (2015). Different ways of being authoritarian: the distinct effects of authoritarian dimensions on values and prejudice. Political Psychology, 38, 73–86. Scholar
  112. Petersen, M. B. (2018). Reproductive interests and dimensions of political ideology. Evolution and Human Behavior, 39, 203–211. Scholar
  113. Petersen, M. B., Sznycer, D., Sell, A., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2013). The ancestral logic of politics: upper-body strength regulates men’s assertion of self-interest over economic redistribution. Psychological Science, 24, 1098–1103. Scholar
  114. Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  115. Pinsof, D., & Haselton, M. G. (2016). The political divide over same-sex marriage: mating strategies in conflict? Psychological Science, 27, 435–442. Scholar
  116. Pinsof, D., & Haselton, M. G. (2017). The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights. PLoS One, 12, e0178534. Scholar
  117. Pratto, F., & Hegarty, P. (2000). The political psychology of reproductive strategies. Psychological Science, 11, 57–62. Scholar
  118. Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: a personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741–763. Scholar
  119. Price, M. E., Kang, J., Dunn, J., & Hopkins, S. (2011). Muscularity and attractiveness as predictors of human egalitarianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 636–640. Scholar
  120. Price, M. E., Sheehy-Skeffington, J., Sidanius, J., & Pound, N. (2017). Is sociopolitical egalitarianism related to bodily and facial formidability in men? Evolution and Human Behavior, 38, 626–634. Scholar
  121. Qirko, H. N. (2013). Induced altruism in religious, military, and terrorist organizations. Cross-Cultural Research, 47, 131–161. Scholar
  122. Quintelier, K. J., Ishii, K., Weeden, J., Kurzban, R., & Braeckman, J. (2013). Individual differences in reproductive strategy are related to views about recreational drug use in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Japan. Human Nature, 24, 196–217. Scholar
  123. Roccato, M., Vieno, A., & Russo, S. (2014). The country’s crime rate moderates the relation between authoritarian predispositions and the manifestations of authoritarianism: a multilevel, multinational study. European Journal of Personality, 28, 14–24. Scholar
  124. Rosvall, K. A. (2011). Intrasexual competition in females: evidence for sexual selection? Behavioral Ecology, 22, 1131–1140. Scholar
  125. Rusch, H., Leunissen, J. M., & van Vugt, M. (2015). Historical and experimental evidence of sexual selection for war heroism. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 367–373. Scholar
  126. Rushton, J. P. (1985). Differential K theory: the sociobiology of individual and group differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 441–452. Scholar
  127. Russo, S., Mirisola, A., & Roccato, M. (2014). Symbolic threat fosters right-wing authoritarianism only among low authoritarians. TPM-Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 197–211. Scholar
  128. Schein, C., & Gray, K. (2015). The unifying moral dyad: liberals and conservatives share the same harm-based moral template. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41, 1147–1163. Scholar
  129. Schein, C., & Gray, K. (2017). The theory of dyadic morality: reinventing moral judgment by redefining harm. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 22, 32–70. Scholar
  130. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1–65. Scholar
  131. Schwartz, S. H., Caprara, G. V., & Vecchione, M. (2010). Basic personal values, core political values, and voting: a longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology, 31, 421–452. Scholar
  132. Schwartz, S. H., Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Bain, P., Bianchi, G., Caprara, M. G., et al. (2014). Basic personal values underlie and give coherence to political values: a cross national study in 15 countries. Political Behavior, 36, 899–930. Scholar
  133. Shaffer, B., & Duckitt, J. (2013). The dimensional structure of people’s fears, threats, and concerns and their relationship with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 6–17. Scholar
  134. Sidanius, J., & Kurzban, R. (2013). Toward an evolutionarily informed political psychology. In D. O. Sears, L. Huddy, & J. S. Levy (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of political psychology (2nd ed., pp. 2015–2236). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Sinn, J. S., & Hayes, M. W. (2017). Replacing the moral foundations: an evolutionary-coalitional theory of liberal-conservative differences. Political Psychology, 38, 1043–1064. Scholar
  136. Sinn, J. S., & Hayes, M. W. (2018). Is political conservatism adaptive? Toward an adaptationist understanding of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. Political Psychology.
  137. Smirnov, O., Arrow, H., Kennett, D., & Orbell, J. (2007). Ancestral war and the evolutionary origins of “heroism.”. The Journal of Politics, 69, 927–940. Scholar
  138. Smith, I. H., Aquino, K., Koleva, S., & Graham, J. (2014). The moral ties that bind . . . even to out-groups: the interactive effect of moral identity and the binding moral foundations. Psychological Science, 25, 1554–1562. Scholar
  139. Snyder, J. K., Fessler, D. M. T., Tiokhin, L., Frederick, D. A., Lee, S. W., & Navarrete, C. D. (2011). Trade-offs in a dangerous world: women’s fear of crime predicts preferences for aggressive and formidable mates. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32, 127–137. Scholar
  140. Sosis, R. (2004). The adaptive value of religious ritual: rituals promote group cohesion by requiring members to engage in behavior that is too costly to fake. American Scientist, 92, 166–172.Google Scholar
  141. Spisak, B. R., Dekker, P. H., Krüger, M., & van Vugt, M. (2012). Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces. PLoS One, 7, e30399. Scholar
  142. Stangor, C., & Leary, S. P. (2006). Intergroup beliefs: investigations from the social side. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 243–281. Scholar
  143. Stollberg, J., Fritsche, I., & Backer, A. (2015). Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 649. Scholar
  144. Summers, K. (2005). The evolutionary ecology of despotism. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 106–135. Scholar
  145. Swami, V., Neofytou, R.-V., Jablonska, J., Thirlwell, H., Taylor, D., & McCreary, D. R. (2013). Social dominance orientation predicts drive for muscularity among British men. Body Image, 10, 653–656. Scholar
  146. Taylor, C. (1989). Sources of the self: The making of the modern identity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Terrizzi, J. A., Shook, N. J., & Ventis, W. L. (2010). Disgust: a predictor of social conservatism and prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 587–592. Scholar
  148. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1988). The evolution of war and its cognitive foundations (technical report no. 88–1) (pp. 1–15). Santa Barbara: Institute for Evolutionary Studies, UCSB.Google Scholar
  149. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2010). Groups in mind: The coalition roots of war and morality. In H. Høgh-Olesen (Ed.), Human morality & sociality: Evolutionary & comparative perspectives (pp. 191–234). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  150. Trapnell, P. D., & Paulhus, D. L. (2012). Agentic and communal values: their scope and measurement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 39–52. Scholar
  151. Turchin, P. (2010). Warfare and the evolution of social complexity: a multilevel-selection approach. Structure and Dynamics, 4
  152. Turchin, P., Currie, T. E., Turner, E. A., & Gavrilets, S. (2013). War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 16384–16389. Scholar
  153. Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K., & Gentile, B. (2012). Generational increases in agentic self-evaluations among american college students, 1966–2009. Self and Identity, 11, 409–427. Scholar
  154. Twenge, J. M., Exline, J. J., Grubbs, J. B., Sastry, R., & Campbell, W. K. (2015). Generational and time period differences in American adolescents’ religious orientation, 1966–2014. PLoS One, 10, e0121454. Scholar
  155. Van Berkel, L., Crandall, C. S., Eidelman, S., & Blanchar, J. C. (2015). Hierarchy, dominance, and deliberation: egalitarian values require mental effort. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41, 1207–1222. Scholar
  156. Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63, 182–196. Scholar
  157. Waytz, A., Dungan, J., & Young, L. (2013). The whistleblower’s dilemma and the fairness–loyalty tradeoff. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 1027–1033. Scholar
  158. Weeden, J., & Kurzban, R. (2013). What predicts religiosity? A multinational analysis of reproductive and cooperative morals. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34, 440–445. Scholar
  159. Weeden, J., Cohen, A. B., & Kenrick, D. T. (2008). Religious attendance as reproductive support. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 327–334. Scholar
  160. Wiggins, J. S., Trapnell, P., & Phillips, N. (1988). Psychometric and geometric characteristics of the revised interpersonal adjective scales (IAS-R). Multivariate Behavioral Research, 23, 517–530. Scholar
  161. Woodley, M. A., & Bell, E. (2013). Consanguinity as a major predictor of levels of democracy: a study of 70 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 263–280. Scholar
  162. Wright, J. C., & Baril, G. L. (2013). Understanding the role of dispositional and situational threat sensitivity in our moral judgments. Journal of Moral Education, 42, 383–397. Scholar
  163. Zerjal, T., Xue, Y., Bertorelle, G., Wells, R. S., Bao, W., Zhu, S., Qamar, R., Ayub, Q., Mohyuddin, A., Fu, S., Li, P., Yuldasheva, N., Ruzibakiev, R., Xu, J., Shu, Q., du, R., Yang, H., Hurles, M. E., Robinson, E., Gerelsaikhan, T., Dashnyam, B., Mehdi, S. Q., & Tyler-Smith, C. (2003). The genetic legacy of the Mongols. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 72, 717–721. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWinthrop UniversityRock HillUSA

Personalised recommendations